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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Letters to Jo

Selected letters (mostly to and from Joseph Lane 1835-1906) and other documents, mostly relevant to Southern Oregon. Unattributed letters below are from the Lilly Library, Indiana University, transcribed from microfilm. The film also includes typescripts of letters from the Asahel Bush collection, as indicated below. I've added Lane letters transcribed from contemporary newspapers and other sources.
   
For more on Lane, see here.

Joseph Lane Campaign Ferrotype, 1860
Joseph Lane campaign ferrotype, 1860



Headquarters Third Brigade, First Division,
    Buena Vista, Mexico, February 25, 1847.
    Sir--I have the honor of laying before you the following report of that part of the battle of the 22nd and 23rd inst., in which the forces under my immediate command took part.
    In obedience to your orders on the 22nd, I took position on the left of the field upon which the battle was fought, near the foot of the mountain, with the eight battalion companies of the 2nd Regiment of my brigade, supported by three pieces of light artillery, commanded by Lieut. O'Brien. The four rifle companies of this brigade (two from the 2nd and two from the 3rd Regiment) having been sent, under your orders, together with two companies of Kentucky mounted riflemen, to occupy an eminence and ridge on the side of the mountain, to check the advance of the enemy (two regiments) who were attempting to turn the left flank of my position by climbing the sides of the mountain.
    Those rifle companies took their position in the afternoon of the 22nd--the four companies of Indiana, commanded by Maj. Gorman, of the 3rd Regiment--the whole under the command of Col. Marshall, of Kentucky; and soon afterwards the enemy opened a brisk fire upon our forces, but with little effect, which they continued without intermission for three hours. In the meantime my men, being secure from the enemy's balls, and watching their chances and taking good aim, succeeded in killing and wounding some thirty or forty of the enemy. In this engagement my loss was four men slightly wounded.
    During the night of the 22nd the enemy sent a reinforcement of about 1500 men up the mountains and succeeded in occupying heights which commanded the position of the riflemen. My whole command slept upon the field that night on their arms. As soon as it was light on the morning of the 23rd, the enemy opened a severe fire from their whole force on the mountain, now amounting in all to about 2500 or 3000 men, commanded by the Mexican Col. Ampudia, it is believed. Notwithstanding the great superiority of the enemy in numbers, our gallant riflemen held them in check for several hours, killing and wounding some fifty or sixty of their forces.
    About 8 o'clock a.m. of the 23rd inst. a part of the Kentucky Mounted Riflemen and cavalry (dismounted for that purpose) were sent up the side of the mountain to support the forces already there, at which time the fire of the enemy became tremendous, but which was returned by our gallant force for more than one hour longer. My instructions from yourself were to hold my position on the left of the field against any force which the enemy might bring against me in that quarter. The enemy had been in great force all the morning of the 23rd, directly in my front and in sight, but too far distant to be reached by Lieut. O'Brien's battery.
    About 9 o'clock I was informed by Col. Churchill that the enemy were advancing toward my position in great force, sheltering themselves in a deep ravine which runs up towards the mountain directly in my front. I immediately put my columns in motion, consisting of those eight battalion companies and Lieut. O'Brien's battery, amounting in all to about 400 men, to meet them. The enemy, when they deployed from the ravine and appeared on the ridge, displayed a force of about 4000 infantry, supported by a large body of lancers. The infantry immediately opened a most destructive fire, which was returned by my small command, both infantry and artillery, in a most gallant manner for some time. I soon perceived that I was too far from the enemy for my muskets to take that deadly effect which I desired, and immediately sent my aide-de-camp to Lieut. O'Brien, directing him to place his battery in a more advanced position, with the determination of advancing my whole line. By this movement I should not only be near the enemy, but should also bring the company on my extreme left more completely into action, as the brow of the hill impeded their fire. By this time the enemy's fire of musketry and the raking fire of ball and grapeshot of their battery posted on my left flank had become terrible, and my infantry, instead of advancing, as was ordered, I regret to say, retired in some disorder from their position, notwithstanding my own and the severe efforts of my officers to prevent them.
    About the same time, the riflemen and cavalry on the mountain retired to the plain below. The Arkansas cavalry (who had been posted by your orders in my rear at the foot of the mountain to act as circumstances might require) also left their position, the whole making a retrograde movement along the plain towards the rear. At the same time one of the Illinois regiments, not under my command, but stationed at some distance in rear and on the right of my position, also retired to the rear. These troops, the most of them, were immediately rallied and fought during the whole day like veterans. A few of them, I regret to say, did not return to the field at all. By this apparent success the enemy were much elated, and poured down along the side of the mountain on the extreme left of the field their thousands of infantry and lancers and formed themselves in good order along the mountain fronting perpendicularly to where our lines had been posted. At this critical juncture, the Mississippi Regiment, under the command of Col. Davis, arrived on the field, and being joined by a part of the 2nd Indiana, met the enemy in a most gallant style, and after a severe and bloody engagement repulsed them with great loss. In the meantime a body of lancers, 600 or 800 in number, who had passed down along the left toward our rear, made a most desperate charge upon the Arkansas and Kentucky cavalry, with a view of cutting off and plundering the baggage train of the army, which was at a rancho near the battlefield.
    This charge was met and resisted most gallantly by those cavalry, aided by about two hundred infantry who had taken refuge there after they had retired from the field. This repulse discouraged the enemy, and the Mississippi Regiment and part of the 2nd Indiana, being joined by the 3rd Indiana Regiment, commanded by Col. James H. Lane, now advanced up towards the foot of the mountain for the purpose of dislodging the enemy's force stationed there. In this enterprise I was aided by Capt. ------'s battery of light artillery, and it was crowned with complete success, the enemy retreating in disorder and with immense loss, back along the side of the mountain to the position they had occupied in the morning, some flying in terror up the sides of the mountain and into the ravines, while a few were taken prisoners. Amongst the last desperate attempts of the enemy to regain and hold the left of the field was a charge made by a large body of lancers upon my command. This charge, for gallantry and determined bravery on both sides, has been seldom equaled. The forces on either side were nearly equal in numbers. Instead of throwing my command into squares to resist the charge, the enemy were received in line of two ranks, my force reserving its fire until the enemy were within about seventy yards, which was delivered with a deadly aim, and which was most destructive in its effects--the enemy flying in every direction in disorder and making a precipitate retreat towards their own lines. About sunset the enemy withdrew from the field, and the battle ceased. In a brief report it is impossible to enter into the details of a day like the 23rd. The fighting throughout consisted of different engagements in different parts of the field, the whole of them warm and well contended, many of them bloody and terrible. The men under my command actually discharged eighty, and some ninety, rounds of cartridges at the enemy during the day. The 2nd Regiment of my command, which opened the battle on the plain in such gallant style, deserves a passing remark. I shall attempt to make no apology for their retreat, for it was their duty to stand or die to the last man until they received orders to retire, but I desire to call your attention to one fact connected with this affair. They remained in their position, in line, receiving the fire of 3000 or 4000 infantry in front, exposed at the same time on the left flank to a most desperate raking fire from the enemy's battery, posted within point-blank shot, until they had deliberately discharged twenty rounds of cartridges at the enemy.
    Some excuse may be framed for those who retired for a few minutes and then immediately rallied and fought during the day, but unless they hasten to retrieve their reputations, disgrace must forever hang around the names of those who refused to return, and I regret to say there were a few of those from nearly every volunteer corps engaged.
    In a battle so fierce and protracted as this, where there were so many exhibitions of coolness and bravery, it is a difficult and delicate task to particularize. But justice compels me to mention Col. Davis and his regiment of Mississippians, who so nobly and so bravely came to the rescue at the proper time to save the fortunes of the day.
    Col. J. H. Lane and the 3rd Regiment of my command were ordered into the action soon after Col. Davis, and the coolness and bravery displayed by both the officers and men of that regiment have rarely been equaled--never surpassed--by any troops at any time. They have done infinite honor to the state and nation that gave them birth. Lieut. Col. Haddon, of the 2nd Regiment of my brigade, aided me in rallying his regiment after they retired, and he in person succeeded in marching a party of them back towards the enemy, with whom he immediately became engaged, and fortunately repulsed them with considerable loss. In another part of the field he succeeded in killing an officer of the enemy with his own hand, by sending a rifle ball through him at a great distance.
    I was also much indebted to Major Mooney, quartermaster; Major Dix, paymaster; the gallant and lamented Capt. Lincoln, of Gen. Wool's staff; and to Lieut. Robinson; for their assistance in rallying the forces after they had retired from their position. They all behaved nobly, and deserve the thanks of the country for the coolness and intrepidity which they displayed on that trying occasion. The latter--acting as my aide-de-camp during the entire day--is entitled to particular attention for the gallant manner in which he executed my orders. Lieut. O'Brien--who commanded the battery of light artillery on my right--is deserving of particular praise for his courage and self-possession throughout the day, moving and discharging his battery with all the coolness and precision of a day of ordinary parade. Major Mooney, quartermaster, and Major Morrison, commissary, attached to my brigade, although not belonging to the line of the army nor expected to take an active part in the battle, are entitled to great honor for their bravery and coolness in promptly rallying the scattered forces at the rancho, who assisted, under the command of Major Morrison, in resisting the desperate charge of the lancers made upon the Arkansas and Kentucky cavalry, as by this repulse the whole baggage train of the army was saved from destruction. This important duty they discharged in addition to those which strictly appertained to their respective departments. A statement of the killed and wounded has already been submitted, which need not be recapitulated here. Although censure does justly attach to a few who proved recreant to their duty on that day, yet I am of the opinion that veteran troops, either of this or any other country, could not have fought and won the battle better than those engaged. It is a victory without a parallel in this or any other war on this continent, and the men and officers who did their duty at the battle of Buena Vista deserve to have their names inscribed on the brightest pages of their country's history. Respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOSEPH LANE,
    Brig. Gen. Com'g. 3rd Brigade.
To Brig. Gen. Wool, U.S.A.
Times-Picayune, New Orleans, June 4, 1847, page 1



Charge 1st
Inability and incompetency to discharge the duties of the office of Colonel.
Specifications:
    1st. In this that the said Colonel [William A.] Bowles is ignorant of the tactics which are used in the army in battalion and company drill and exercise.
    2nd. In this that the said Col. Bowles is ignorant of the tactics in use in brigade drill and exercise.
    3rd. In this that he is ignorant of the movements necessary to meet and resist a charge of the enemy as shown on the night of the 22nd February 1847 on the battlefield of Buena Vista, Mexico
Charge 2nd
Violation of the 52nd article of war
Specification 1st:
    In this that in the battle of the 23rd February 1847 at Buena Vista, Mexico, he the said Col. Bowles, comdt. of the said regiment, did misbehave himself before the enemy by then and there giving to the said regiment while engaged with and under the fire of the enemy the following unnecessary order to wit: "cease firing and retreat," in consequence of which order the said regiment did retreat and was thrown into great confusion, some of whom could not be rallied again during the battle.
Specification 2nd:
    In this that in the battle of the 23rd February last at Buena Vista, Mexico, with the Mexican army, he the said Col. Bowles, commandant of the said regiment, while in action and while the said regiment and a battery of three guns were under the command of Brig. Genl. Lane of the 3rd Brigade, all under the enemies' fire did without any authority give to the said regiment the following unnecessary and un-officerlike order twice repeated, "cease firing and retreat" in consequence of which said order the said regt. did commence a most disorderly retreat from the enemy.
Specification 3rd:
    In this that the said Col. Bowles, comdt. of the said regt., on the said 23rd day of February [paper loss] in the said battle after giving and repeating the said order in the 1st and 2nd specifications last above named, did shamefully run away from the enemy and abandon his post in the presence of the enemy, which post he had been commanded by his superior officer to maintain and defend.
Specification 4th:
    In this that the said Col. Bowles after giving the order specified in the 1st and 2nd specifications
[missing page]
under this charge did then and there abandon his position in regt., and run away from the enemy and hide himself both from his regt. and the enemy and take shelter alone in a ravine near the scene of action.
Specification 5th:
    In this that the said Col. Bowles, comdt. of the said regt., while commanding the same in that battle and while under the fire of the enemy, dismounted from his horse in the rear of his regt. and took shelter from the enemy's fire behind his men and behind his own horse.
Specification 6th:
    In this that the said Col. Bowles while comdt. of that regt. (under Brig. Genl. Lane), during the battle aforesaid on the said 23rd February, spoke words to that regt. which induced it to retreat from the enemy while under their fire as follows, to wit "cease firing, cease firing and retreat."
Specification 7th
    In this that on the day aforesaid and during that battle and while engaged with the enemy, the said Col. Bowles gave the order in the last specification mentioned with the intention of inducing that regt. to abandon the position they then occupied and which they had received orders from a superior officer to maintain and defend. 
    All of which are contrary to law and tended not only to the  manifest injury of the public service, but to bring reproach upon American arms.
Bowle's court of inquiry convened April 12, 1847 and concluded on April 27.  This document is found on the last reel, the undated papers.



Mexican account of the Battle of Atlixco, being a letter from a son in Atlixco to his father in Puebla & published in a Mexican handbill.
Entrance of the Americans
With Fire & Blood
Into Atlixco
    My beloved father and sir whom I highly venerate--Surely your blessing has preserved me in this conjuncture, for the Americans by their valor and discipline are invincible and indeed without exaggeration their attack appeared to me the day of judgment.
    I write to you now to inform you that the army of the United States of America yesterday afternoon at the Rio de los Molineros (river of the millers) had a most bloody engagement with his excellency, the commanding general Don Joaquin Rea, who was at the head of two thousand infantry, well drilled, well equipped and paid, with all his valiant guerrilleros. But he found it impossible to maintain his position notwithstanding the profound military knowledge possessed by this ancient soldier of Napoleon and veteran of independence, and he abandoned it precipitately and retired to the city of Atlixco. The American  army, following, found resistance in the impregnable mountain of San Miguel, which however was finally carried by American valor notwithstanding it was covered by two thousand more soldiers and one cannon. In this action, we had much need of the brave national guard of Huanchinango, who the day before yesterday were ordered by Señor the Governor to retire, and who slept in Cholula and marched out at one in the morning on their route with much apprehension.
    The American army possessed themselves of said mountain having met the most admirable firmness of the patriotic Mexicans who retired to the center of the city and thence discharged much musketry from the houses, and churches served for strong walls of defense. These were attacked by fire, for the artillery (American) was directed with great force and effect at the plaza, throwing about 210 shells. The superiority of arms obliged the Mexicans to ask a truce, which resulted in a capitulation which has commenced at 7 o'clock, at which hour I now take up my pen to address you.
    I know not the loss which the American army has suffered but am assured that it is very small, while at the same time the Mexicans here had 219 killed and 300 wounded, and several guerrilleros taken prisoner of those who style themselves the "poisoned lancers." I have omitted to mention to you that the Señor General Rea has departed with his confidential adjutants for the south and on the morning of yesterday, his excellency the Governor took flight with the most loyal of the government employees. He intends to establish himself at Tlapa, a place very appropriate to meet the enemy with his usual valor, that valor which he has exhibited and will continue so to do.
    The Señor Deputy, on account of his sudden departure for Matamoros, has failed to pay me the amount of the draft, but I had it protested, in consequence of which you will take from the trunk the silver plate which I consider ought to be sold to defray the expenses of your journey and servants. Starting from the city, you will await me at Tepeaca, for which place I start this moment.
    When I see you I will give you the particulars and business assoc. I get you to avail yourself of the humble attention and love of your affectionate son.
José Edwardo Hernandez
This document is found on the last reel, the undated papers



Puebla Mexico October 25 1847
My beloved wife
    I arrived at this place on the 12th instant. I had much trouble in getting along owing to bad teams, broken wagons and wet weather. Rain almost every day and night; in all it was a hard trip, but not altogether unprofitable to the arms of our country, but on the contrary glorious. On my way up on the 8th I was informed that Santa Anna was somewhere near with a large force. My spies was immediately dispatched to look for him. About 9 o'clock on the morning of the 9th they informed me that he was at Huamantla, a large town twelve miles from the road. I divided my forces, ordered the wagons packed, left 1500 men to guard them and in fifteen minutes from the time my spies came in I was on the road to meet him. After a severe march of three hours I reached the town and engaged him. The fight was severe for one hour, but Santa Anna was completely routed and run off. His force was 2500 and ours 1500; he had his cannon so as to rake the streets. 150 Mexicans were killed and many prisoners taken, two cannon and 30 wagonloads of ammunition and a large number of mules and horses. Our loss in killed and missing fifteen, among them the gallant Capt. Walker.
    On arriving at this place we found our forces shut up in the forts and the enemy occupying the town. I made no halt but marched into town, engaged and drove the enemy out with severe loss. In three days more the town was well filled with the returning inhabitants; stores were opened, and things moving on quietly. On the 18th I learned that Genl. Rea was at the town of Atlixco, 20 miles from this place, with 2000 men and 4 cannon. On the morning of the 19th I was on the road to meet him or hunt him up and bring him to a fight. He came six miles on the road to meet me and the fight commenced. They were driven, contesting the road, for six miles into town, where they opened on us with their artillery. My pieces, seven in number, were run up in close range and opened on the town. The bombardment lasted for one hour, commencing about 8 o'clock at night, and was the most beautiful sight that I ever seen. They ceased firing and sent out and surrendered the town and asked for quarter, which was granted. 219 Mexicans were killed and 300 wounded. Never was a victory more glorious. I have done more to awe the Mexican forces around Puebla than has been done by any other man.
    Joseph is at the castle of Perote where I left him. In a few days he will come up with Genl. Cushing. Perote is a delightful place, and our officers will be kind to him. Besides I left a good servant to take care of him and plenty of money in his pocket.
    I don't see how the Mexicans can hold out much longer; they must make peace, and I would be glad how soon my ambition is fully gratified, and I want to be with my family. Take good care of all my children.
God bless you all
    Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




New Orleans April 12 1848
Dear Doctor
    I arrived here on the 4th in good health. No vessel going out for several days, so I will be compelled to remain in this city. I would much have preferred being at home, provided always that my peace, quiet and comfort should not be disturbed by the dmd. infernal constables, to me a very unwelcome visitor at any time, and more especially under the circumstances that I received their last visits. In truth I had no money. In this city I borrowed money from a friend before I offered to take my baggage off the boat (unknown, however, to the clerk) to pay passage. On my passage, though a good boat, kind capt. & crew, I suffered in mind all the torments of hell. I would imagine that some personal or political enemy would publish that I had refused to pay honest debts and had to run from the worthy gentlemen above mentioned. I had in my pocket no money to treat my friends, which would very much have relieved my gloomy state of mind. I would often study over the doings of my life & would at times be foolish enough to think that I had rendered good services to the state and especially to Evansville in the arrangement of the state debt. Then again I would be weak enough to claim to myself the credit of having done something in vindication of the injured reputation of the troops of our state. That I had truly sought opportunities and thrown myself in the front of the fight for the purpose not only of doing my duty but now to show to the world that Indiana as well as other states was willing and would do her duty in battle or otherwise & would in my heart curse the enemy for not shooting me in the head and ending gloriously a life, though devoted to my country & family, that has been made miserable by poverty and misfortune. My children are to be reared without education & I shall expect to hear that the subsistence in the way of provisions, which is barely sufficient for them, is sold by virtue of execution. Then things were continually harassing me. My favorite charger, because I could not think of having her sold into the hands of the highest bidder, for she had carried me to battle & to victory at Huamantla, Puebla, Atlixco, twice at Tlascala, at Matamoros & Galaxa, at Teotihuacan & Sequaltepan, has been given to another. Is it certain that she will be treated as she deserves. That thing has harassed me very much. But I have one comfortable reflection. She is in the hands of a well-tried and faithful personal friend. He has been kind to my family in my absence and helped them in need. But, my dear friend, these things are wearing off, and with great pleasure I think of the kindness that I have received from the good people of Evansville without distinction of party. They have been more kind to me than I expected or deserved, for which I shall always feel grateful.
    I will leave on the first boat for Vera Cruz and hasten to the city of Mexico & if there is more fighting to do I will do my duty, and if it is the will of kind heaven that a shot from some escopet may happen to end my life, it will save the repetition of the horrors and sufferings of mind which is to a proud man worse than death that shall be compelled to endure until I can get money to satisfy the cravings of such dmd. rascals as Babcock & others.
    Genl. Taylor arrived in the city this morning. He is in good health, but not well pleased with Clay's letter, as I am informed. He thinks that he has the best chance of success. Nothing late from Mexico. The opinion of knowing ones here is that Mexico will not make peace. I have not, however, changed my opinion; peace will soon be made.
    If I had known that my stay here would have been so long I might possibly have by waiting have got my leave extended or at least have got an answer to my letter. If it has come to hand, forward [it], as I may be held responsible for delay. Visit my family and encourage them to persevere in business, to make no debts and try to get the children to school. Simon, who is a good boy and sensible, cannot write his name. Trouble condition hard reflection [sic] and yet he must work like a negro to satisfy the damned heartless robbers. Oh, cruel fate.
    Can't our property be sold, debts paid, and the children educated. Get Robinson to try and sell. If he can effect a sale I will direct the boys to make the conveyance. Attend to this request; the happiness and respectability of family makes it necessary. Our property is a fortune, but we must pay debts and educate our children.
    See Robinson soon and try and get him to seek a buyer and write me.
    My respects [to] Mrs. Lane and family.
With great respect I am your
    Friend
        Joseph Lane
Write me often. Let me know things generally.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    St. Louis Sept. 11, 1848
Sir:
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 2nd inst. directing the sum of $6,902.85 to be turned over to Govr. Jos. Lane on account of the Oregon sub-agency, and to inform you that he left here about the 1st instant for Fort Leavenworth, at which place I have just learned from the clerk of the steamer Mandan he was on the 6th last and making his preparations to start on the 9th for Oregon. From another gentleman I learn that there was some uncertainty about his starting so soon, and have accordingly written to him this day by mail and steamboat, informing him that the money, instructions, blanks, commissions &c. are on hand here for him.
With great respect I am sir
    Yr  most obt. svt.
        John Haverty
            Clerk Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 414-415.



    GOV. LANE.--The steamer Martha arrived from Weston last night. We learn from her officers that Gov. Lane left Fort Leavenworth with an escort of 25 men, under the command of Lieut. Hawkins, on Sunday, the 10th inst., for Oregon, via Santa Fe and California. The officers also report that Gen. Price was expected to arrive in Santa Fe on the second of last month.
Unidentified clipping marked "Sept. '48," pasted onto letter below. Weston is a town in Ohio; the Martha plied the Ohio River.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    St. Louis Sept. 28, 1848
Sir:
    On the 11th inst. the clerk of this office had the honor to inform you of the departure of Govr. Jos. Lane from this city for Fort Leavenworth on or about the first of this month, and of his having written to him by steamboat & mail, advising him of the amount of funds &c. These letters have since been returned by the postmaster at Fort L. to this office, the Governor having left there on the 10th instant on his way to Oregon.
    The remittance of $6,902.75, advised by your letter of 2nd inst. for the use of Govr. Lane, was recd. here on the 13th. It being no longer available here for the purpose intended, I have respectfully to ask your instructions to redeposit it to the credit of the Treasurer of the United States.
    The documents recd. from your office for Govr. L. have been returned here up to this time, in the hope that an opportunity would occur of forwarding them to Oregon; none such having presented itself, I have this day returned them as directed by the postscript of your letter above referred to.
I have the honor to be sir
    Yr  most obt. svt.
        T. H. Harvey
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. W. Medill
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 416-417.



   Fort Vancouver 3 March 1849        
To General Lane
    Governor of Oregon
    &c.   &c.   &c.
        Sir
                We have very lately been informed of your safe arrival in this country and take the earliest opportunity to present our cordial congratulations on an event which we, in common with the other inhabitants of this country, have long and ardently desired.
    We intend shortly to do ourselves the honor of paying our respects to you in person and in the meantime we beg to assure you that it will afford us much pleasure to see you at Fort Vancouver whenever you visit this part of the country.
    The Hudson's Bay Company's overland express will leave this place about the 18th inst. for Canada, and we shall be most happy to take charge of any letters you may wish to forward by that conveyance.
We have the honor to be
Your Excellency's
    Most Obdt Servts
    Peter Skene Ogden
    James Douglas
    Chief Factors H B Compy.
This letter was misfiled as being from 1869. The image of the original can be found on the eighth microfilm reel of the Jo Lane Papers.

Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane


Evansville, Ia., June 21th 1849
Dear Husband,
    It is with the utmost gratitude to that being that rules in mercy that I can say to you that we are all enjoying very good health at present and while I am expressing my gratefulness to him for so rich a blessing I hope you are in possession of the same. I received the letter you wrote when you were starting to the gold mines; that is the last we have heard from you. I am now looking every day for letters from you; when I get a letter from you it revives me more than everything else in the world could when you are away from home. The time now seems like an age since you have been gone from home, but I try now to make myself as much contented as possible as fall is drawing nigh when I shall look for you home. The cholera is very bad in this country. A great many have died with it—it is now in our neighborhood. I need not try to tell you how many of your friends have died since you have been gone; I believe it would take up half this sheet of paper. Uncle Simon's family has had the cholera. He is now greatly afflicted; he has lost his wife and Malissa, and he is now left with four little children without a mother. He has been sick himself, but he is getting better. Your mother's family are all well. Andy Barlow's family are all well. Jo Ben and Mary Caroline are two very smart little children. Jo Ben talks about his papa every day. Sis begins to talk very plain. Sarah Noel that was the blooming Sarah Eakins is now numbered among the pale nations of the dead. She is gone from this world of noise and bluster; she has left an infant and many friends to deplore her loss. She came up the river about four weeks since and her husband stayed in New Orleans. He intended on coming up in the fall. Papa and Mother sends their compliments to you. They have been very kind to me and the children. I do not believe there ever was kinder parents than mine; they try to do everything to make me happy that they can. They would do more if I would let them but I cannot be happy when I am away from you. My prayer is every day that we may meet once more in this world. Ever since you have been gone you have constantly been on my mind and would be if you were to stay fifty years. We have spent many a happy hour together and I hope we will spend many more. I have been up to our old farm and John Strong is living on it. Henry Angel is living on your father's home farm. Everything is very much changed since you and your father have been gone. Ratliff's death was a great misfortune. I have got Uncle Simon to attend to our business. I will try to attend to it as well as I can till you get home. You must excuse my mistakes and bad writing. Jo Ben and Sis is playing and pulling at me so I cannot write.
    May the blessings of almighty God rest and abide with you now and forever is my prayer.
Your affectionate wife until death.
    Jane D. Lane
N. H. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library

FROM OREGON!
THE MESSAGE OF GEN. LANE!
To the Territorial Legislature.
LETTER FROM JUDGE BRYANT!
INTERESTING INTELLIGENCE!
    Oregon City, August 18th, 1849.        
To the Editors of the Indiana State Sentinel:
    Enclosed I send you the message of our mutual friend, Gov. Lane, to the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Oregon. This document, as well as all the Governor's official acts, shows the good sense, and I may add, the good heart of the man, and is well received here by the citizens and assembly. The Governor is very prompt in defending the Indians in their fisheries and other rights, essential to their comfort and subsistence, and on the other hand exacts from them more respect to the rights of our citizens than one not accustomed to them would suppose them capable of yielding. We have had no late difficulties with them, and I believe his policy will secure us against any future difficulty. The Governor is almost constantly engaged in hearing their petty grievances, and redressing them in a plain and summary way that makes them pay respect to the rights of one another, and abstain from depredations upon the citizens. Our legislature is in session. They are men of good sense, and well understand the wants of the people of the Territory. Several of them have filled important stations in the States, and Col. Chapman was once a delegate in Congress from Iowa. The courts in my district are in session. Last week I held court in Linn County, in this, in Champoeg, and next week will hold court in Clackamas, and week after in Vancouver, which will end my circuit. Judge Pratt's circuit will commence 1st Monday in September. I found but little business to do. The grand jury found four or five indictments for small offenses, such as hog stealing and stealing horses from the Indians, &c., in Champoeg. Such things will happen at first, but I think, judging from the mass of the citizens, who are mainly very orderly and honest, that these lawless characters will not long remain amongst us. I was up this, the Willamette Valley, as far as the Calapooia settlements. I never saw a richer valley of land, and the mountain scenery is captivating. The health of the country is good, and the harvest is abundant. This is the greatest country for wheat on the continent. I have never seen finer wheat grow than we have this year in Oregon, not near all of which will be saved for the want of laborers. The ordinary wages for laborers in the harvest field is $6 per day to each man. Every kind of labor commands nearly any price asked for it. The packers, in advance of the emigration, arrived today. They report 8,000 wagons on the road; about 2,000 bound for this Territory, the residue for California. The cholera had been fatal out from Missouri to Blue River, about 400 miles; about 700 deaths, and had abated; but there was much sickness of fevers among the emigrants, and some deaths. We anticipate much sickness and distress among the land emigration. The packers are of opinion that they are rushing and pressing their cattle so hard in order to get out to the mines that they will break them down. I hope there will not be sufficient emigration come here to make us a famine. Our people are returning from California every day with large sums of gold, the product of the mines. It will surprise you I dare say to learn the trade of the Columbia River this year, in comparison with what it has heretofore been. I have before me a statement showing the arrivals and departures of vessels coming in and going out with freight over the Columbia Bar which has heretofore been considered impassable. Since the 7th of May, ships of every size, from forty tons to seven hundred tons burden, amounting to fifty-eight up to the 18th of this month, and not a single incident of a serious character has happened. If the twentieth party of the protection was given to the trade of this river that is extended to the mouth of the rivers in the States, the Columbia would be found to be a much better bar than that of most rivers in the States of its size. The lumber trade of this river is quite an important trade; so of the wheat and flour.
    The Legislature were this evening engaged in devising means to alleviate the suffering of the emigrants. Many of them will not be able to get through, it is believed, with the best assistance we can give them.
    We have no paper published in this Territory, and I cannot furnish you with a printed copy of the Governor's message. He is quite well; left here this morning for the Umpqua Valley, accompanied by Lieut. Talbot, with an escort, to examine Alsea Bay, and to see the Indians of that part of the Territory. It turns out that there are several good harbors on the coast below the mouth of the Columbia River, although it has heretofore been reported an iron-bound coast.
    Yours, truly,
        WM. P. BRYANT.
--------
GEN. LANE'S MESSAGE.
Fellow Citizens of the Council, and of the House of Representatives:
    It affords me pleasure to tender to you my friendly greeting, on the occasion of your assembling at the seat of government for the first time, under the law of Congress "To establish the Territorial Government of Oregon," to enter upon the discharge of the important duties to which you have been called by the voice of your constituents.
    The task devolves on me,to propose such measures as have in the discharge of my official duties suggested themselves as necessary to promote the interest and welfare of the Territory. In communicating with you for the first time, it is a source of unfeigned satisfaction, calling for mutual gratulations and devout thanks to a benign Providence, that we are in the enjoyment of general good health and prosperity, and that we are at peace with the numerous tribes of Indians surrounding us.
    Widely separated and exposed as are our people, by reason of the great extent of country over which they are scattered, peace and harmony with the natives is of vital importance to the security and success of our settlements. The well being of the inhabitants of Oregon, no less than the cause of humanity, requires that we should always encourage relations of the most friendly character with our red brethren.
    The Cayuse nation remain unpunished for the massacre at Waiilatpu, but the whole tribe will be held responsible until those, whoever they may be, concerned in that melancholy and horrible affair are given up for punishment. A fine regiment of troops commanded by officers who have distinguished themselves in the service of their country are en route for Oregon and may be expected to arrive by the middle of September. It will then be in the power of the government to make this tribe accountable for their wrongdoing, and I can assure you that our government will not suffer the guilty to go unpunished.
    A party of the Shey-wamish and Snoqualmie tribes recently made an attack on the Hudson's Bay Company's fort at Nisqually, in which difficulty an American citizen was unfortunately killed. I shall hold these tribes accountable until the guilty shall have been punished. It is the intention of the gallant officer in command of the forces now in Oregon to establish a garrison of one company on Puget Sound for the protection of the settlements in that quarter, so that no apprehension of any further outrage in that section need be entertained.
    I had the gratification while on a visit to the falls of the Columbia, to bring about a peace, at the request of the chief of the Yakimas, between that tribe and the Walla-Wallas who were at that time engaged in war. These tribes, as also the tribes that I visited on the Cowlitz and Puget Sound, I was pleased to find friendly towards us, and as well as the tribes bordering the settlements on the Willamette and Columbia, anxious to sell their possessory rights to the soil.
    Surrounded as many of the tribes and bands now are by the whites, whose arts of civilization, by destroying the resources of the Indians, doom them to poverty, want and crime, the extinguishment of their title by purchase, and the locating them in a district removed from the settlements, is a measure of most vital importance to them. Indeed the cause of humanity calls loudly for their removal from causes and influences so fatal to their existence. This measure is one of equal interest to our own people. I would therefore call your attention to the propriety of memorializing Congress upon this interesting subject.
    We can recognize in Oregon the material of her future greatness; a climate and a soil extraordinarily productive eminently characterize it. The prolific growth of grain, vegetables and grapes; the natural meadows, untouched by the hand of cultivation, sufficiently extensive to furnish subsistence to innumerable herds of cattle, during the entire year; inexhaustible forests of the finest fir and cedar in the world; never-failing streams which furnish water power of unlimited capacity, show how lavishly nature has bestowed her blessings upon his favored land.
    With the proper development of her agricultural resources, and the improvement of her immense water power, she can supply the entire Pacific Coast with the most important of the necessaries of life and many of the staple articles of commerce. Her immense resources are gradually but surely being developed; her mineral wealth, at present, is not to be computed; gold has been found in several places, in sufficient quantity to induce the belief that there are mines, perhaps extensive ones, of this precious metal within the borders of our Territory; iron, lead and coal are known to exist, and the indications of their abundance are of the most flattering description.
    The Columbia is the only great river on the Pacific Slope of our continent which leads from the ocean to the Rocky Mountains, by which a line of communication can be opened to the great valley of the Mississippi. The navigation from its mouth to the Cascades, a distance of nearly one hundred and fifty miles, is uninterrupted for vessels of the largest class. These obstructions, and those beyond, may be surmounted in a considerable degree by canals and locks. The importance of this immense line of interior communication cannot fail ultimately to secure for it the fostering hand of the general government. It is a source of great gratification to know that the entrance of the mouth of the Columbia is much less dangerous than has heretofore been generally supposed. Many vessels, some of them large ships, drawing from twelve to sixteen feet of water, have, during the present year, crossed the bar, arriving and departing without the aid of pilots, lighthouses or buoys; and not a single accident has occurred to intercept the facility of navigation during the present year.
    It affords me much pleasure to give the subjoined extract of a letter from Captain Wood, of the United States steamer Massachusetts, as such testimonials will have a tendency to disabuse the public mind and remove the prejudices unfortunately existing against the mouth of this noble river.
    "Having waited until about 4 p.m., and seeing no indications that our signal for a pilot had been observed, I stood in, followed the directions I obtained in New York of Capt. R. Gelston, who was here last year in the barque Whitton, proceeding safely and without accident to anchorage in Baker's Bay. There was no one aboard the ship who had ever been here before. From what I saw, it seems to me that if the channel was properly buoyed, and there was a competent pilot stationed at the cape to conduct vessels in, that the entrance of the river would lose its horrors, and in ordinary circumstances be considered safe and easily accessible."
    Congress has made an appropriation for the erection of lighthouses at Cape Disappointment and New Dungeness, and for the construction of buoys to indicate the channels at the mouth of the Columbia and the approaches to Astoria.
    This appropriation, it is to be feared, will be inadequate, in consequence of the high price of labor, occasioned by our proximity to the gold mines of California. I would therefore respectfully advise you to memorialize Congress on the subject, acquainting that body with all the circumstances and facts of the case, and showing that the early completion of these contemplated improvements are of vital interest to the Territory.
    Puget Sound is known to be one of the safest and best harbors in the world. It affords fine ship navigation into a beautiful and important portion of our country.
    I refrain from dwelling further upon topics so interesting as the features and resources of the country, conscious, as I am, that my feeble attempt to delineate them is entirely inadequate to do them justice.
    I am happy to know that many of our people who have been to the mines are returning to their homes and farms, and it is to be hoped are satisfied and determined to remain and renew their farming and other occupations. The gold excitement occasioned the absence of a large part of our laboring population; many of them had failed to put in crops; fine farms are lying idle; consequently, this year, the crops will fall short of an average one. But there is no doubt that with the grain on hand there will be a sufficient supply for home consumption.
    We have good reason to believe that the extraordinary emigration to California, in consequence of the gold mines, will in a short time result in adding so largely to our numbers that our population, now only about nine thousand, will be doubled in the next twelve months. The healthy climate, rich and beautiful valleys of Oregon, will doubtless induce many of them to seek a permanent home amongst us. She will thus be benefited by those mines equally with her sister territory.
    It is estimated that upwards of two millions of dollars in gold dust have been brought into Oregon since their discovery. This new element of prosperity, invested in agricultural and other branches of industry, must have a most cheering effect upon the prosperity of the country. It should, however, always be borne in mind that the wealth of a country does not consist so much in dollars and cents as in the number, virtue, intelligence and patriotism of her population; in cultivated fields, flocks and herds, and those facilities natural and artificial which afford an easy and certain market for its surplus production.
    From the best information I have been able to gather, from estimates and otherwise, the expense of the late Cayuse war may be set down at about one hundred and ninety thousand dollars. This indebtedness has borne heavily on many individuals who advanced money to the provisional government, some of whom borrowed money for the purpose of arming and subsisting the troops, and have since paid those sums out of their own funds, by which they have been greatly injured in their private affairs.
    The justice of the war and the good conduct of the citizens in promptly turning out in defense of their country entitle them not only to the good opinion of government, but to an appropriation by Congress sufficient to pay the expense of the war. It is for you to take such steps as in your wisdom may seem best to ascertain the exact amount of the expenses of the war, and to whom it is due; and to lay the subject before Congress, with a request that they make the just and proper appropriation.
    In regard to donations of land, the people of Oregon have long been kept in suspense. They believe that the faith of the government is virtually pledged to a grant of land to each settler who has made a location and improved it. The immediate attention of Congress should be called to the subject, and their early and favorable attention requested.
    The necessity of good roads, in aiding the settlement, as well as in promoting the present and future prosperity of the country, is too manifest to require illustration. The enactment of laws to this end, and for the making [of] such other improvements, as may facilitate intercourse between the different sections of the country, so far as it may be, within the ability of the Territory, is earnestly recommended. A good road leading from Walla Walla to Puget Sound, one from Chehalis to some point on the Columbia, and another from the falls of the Columbia to the valley of the Willamette, one of the greatest importance to our country in a military point of view, and will doubtless be so considered by our government, if their attention in a proper manner is called to the subject.
    A matter of the deepest interest to the prosperity of the Territory will be the establishment of a judicious system to raise revenue. This is no less demanded for the redemption of the plighted faith of the provisional government, than it is for raising by a practicable and legal method sufficient funds not obtainable from the federal treasury, to meet incidental and necessary expenses of the Territory. While the home government contributes in a liberal spirit to the maintenance of our temporary existence as a Territory, it is expected that all revenue, necessary to the local interests of the several counties will be supplied by a system of equal assessments, levied upon the people who are to be permanently benefited thereby. Your early attention to this delicate but necessary duty is earnestly recommended.
    Your immediate attention is most respectfully urged, to the examination and remedy of the loose and defective condition of the statute laws, declared by the organic act to be operative in the Territory. No others prevail here, except such as were the offspring of the late provisional government, which are coupled with an old and imperfect edition of the laws of Iowa, which were adopted by it, only one or two copies of which are to be found in the Territory. Most of these laws are unsuited to our present condition. Besides they are to a great extent beyond the reach of the body of the people, whose lives and property are to be controlled by authority and rules for their guidance, not to be obtained, or if found, not adapted to the new order of things.
    Certainty, simplicity [and] fitness in the statute regulations of any people united to education and the general diffusion of the laws constitute the most reliable safeguard against the commission of crime, and the surest pledge of general prosperity.
    No duty is more arduous, or more imperatively demanded by the public interest, than that which devolves upon you in furnishing the people of the Territory with good and wholesome laws. The public good as well as a just pride in your legislative reputation call for the application of your best energies and most careful deliberation to this difficult and laborious task.
    I feel it no less my duty than my highest privilege to call your attention to the deeply interesting subject of education. The law of Congress provides that when the lands of the Territory shall be surveyed under the direction of the government of the United States, preparatory to bringing them into market, sections sixteen and thirty-six, in each township, shall be reserved for the purpose of being applied to schools. The munificent spirit displayed by Congress in making so liberal a donation for this purpose is a ground for grateful acknowledgment, and indicates an enlightened policy, which looks to the general diffusion of knowledge as the surest guarantee for the continuance of good government, and the substantial happiness of our people. In this grant we shall have the means of promoting a system of common schools for the education of all the children of the Territory.
    Your attention is invited to the importance of adopting a system of common schools and providing the means of putting them in immediate operation; and when the land becomes available, the system may under wise legislation be maintained and continued without bearing onerously upon the people, and ultimately be productive of the end in view when the gift was made. With a system of general education, sustained by such resources, there is no reason to doubt that in the course of a few years the rising generation of Oregon will proudly vie in respect to useful knowledge and moral culture with that of the older settled portions of our common country.
    The organization of the militia is a measure so identified with the peace, security and defense of our people, that it cannot fail to recommend itself to your early consideration. Your attention is invited to the act entitled "An act to prevent the introduction of firearms amongst the Indians." This law not only prevents the introduction of firearms, but prohibits the sale of powder and ball to the Indian, thereby depriving him in a great measure of the means of procuring subsistence, and if strictly enforced, would produce much suffering among this unfortunate race of people. Humanity requires that we should afford them every facility that we can safely do to ameliorate their condition. It is well known that the tribes bordering the settlements are friendly and well disposed towards us, and that there is no danger to be apprehended from them by placing in their hands the means of procuring subsistence by the chase. I would therefore recommend the repeal of the law, or its modification, so as to discriminate between friends and enemies.
    It will be your duty by enactment to fix the time, place and manner of holding and conducting elections; to provide for the apportioning [of] the representation in the several counties and districts to the Council and House of Representatives; to define the qualifications of voters and of holding office, and also to fix the day of the commencement of the regular sessions of the legislative assembly.
    It will be for you in your wisdom to determine whether you will proceed to locate the seat of government at the present or some subsequent session of the legislative assembly.
    In closing this communication, it only remains for me to assure you of my earnest wish for the adoption of such measures as will tend to the general welfare, prosperity and happiness of our people.
JOSEPH LANE.           
    Oregon City, July, 1849.
Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, December 13, 1849, page 4




Oregon City December 6th 1849       
Col.,
    I have just had an interview with Capt. Scott from the Umpqua settlement, who informs me that an Indian of the Umpqua tribe recently came into the settlement and there reported that a party of ten or twelve families from California bound for Oregon have been cut off by the Rogue River Indians, all killed but the children, who are prisoners.
    The following is an extract from a letter just recd. from the Umpqua. "If the Indian report alone was the only grounds we have for belief, I should place much less reliance upon the story, but we have had for the last two weeks a report given us by parties returning from California that ten or twelve families were about starting for Oregon and others reported them actually on the road. The last party of packers who passed about eight days ago reported seeing fresh wagon tracks on the road as far as Rogue River but no further."
    I have conceived it to be my duty to lay this information before you, with the hope that you will be able to send out a small force to the Umpqua and in the direction of the Rogue River tribe of Indians, for the purpose of inquiring into the facts, and if true to recover the captives. Children could hardly be expected to survive the winter; deprived of clothing, exposed to cold and hunger, death would be almost certain. If there is any good reason to believe the report, it seems to me that an effort ought to be made to recover the living.
    I would advise you to see Captain Scott, who will call on you tomorrow morning and give you all the information that he possesses upon the subject. He can also inform you whether a small force could be subsisted and quartered in that vicinity or rather in the Umpqua settlements.
With great respect
    I am sir
        Your obt. servt.
            Joseph Lane
Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received 1848-1852, 1849 No. 21.



Oregon City, October 25th, 1849.       
    Dear Spann:--I have the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your very friendly letter, by Judge Bryant, and also the proceedings of two public meetings of my good friends of Indianapolis, for which I tender you and give them my thanks. You will, I hope, readily pardon me for not writing sooner. I have been so constantly engaged in the discharge of official duties that I have not had time to write as often to my friends as I would like to.
    I arrived here in advance of all the territorial officers, proceeded to organize the government, caused the census to be taken, made the apportionment, caused elections to be held, convened the legislative assembly, and did all other things required by law and the interest of the Territory.
    Most of the time I have had no assistance, and consequently everything to do. In the management of our Indian affairs I have had but little help. Two sub-agents received appointments in June. One soon after resigned, and the other went to California. In the discharge of this duty, for the purpose of maintaining friendly relations with the Indians, I found it necessary to visit many of the tribes, in their own country. I proceeded to the Dalles of the Columbia, Chutes River, Yakima county, Cowlitz, Puget Sound, the valley of the Willamette, across the Coast Mountains, from the Willamette to the coast at Yaquina Bay; near two hundred miles south of the Columbia.
    I have seen more or less of the people of near forty of the sixty-seven tribes living in Oregon, made out and forwarded a report of all the tribes, their location, numbers, and disposition, as near as could possibly be ascertained; copied the executive proceedings and official correspondence, and forwarded the same to the President, and did all other things necessary to be done, to the best of my ability, honestly and faithfully. The executive books and papers, as also of the Indian affairs, are in good condition, plain and easy to be understood.
    My health has been fine, and I have labored constantly. I have said this much about my doings (which I hope you will excuse) to let you know that no part of my duty has been neglected. I suppose that I shall be removed, but I am determined that it shall be without cause, or at least any reasonable cause of complaint. These are the reasons, my dear friend, why I have not written ere this.
    I confess to you that I am surprised to find that any considerable portion of the Whig Party of Indiana should at any time be willing to fasten upon their state lasting disgrace. It is not deserved. No better troops ever pulled a trigger in their country's defense than the troops from Indiana. Why should they unjustly suffer? They shall not! I shall feel it my duty at all times and under all circumstances to tell the truth, and the honest truth is the only defense of their reputation that they or the state will ever require. If it should be my misfortune to make enemies by defending the reputation of my command, my state, and myself, let it be so.
    While in the Mexican War, it was my fortune to see troops from different states engaged in battle--good troops--but no better than the Indianans. No troops ever did their duty better, and but for the cowardice of Bowles, and the falsehood of others, no troops would have stood higher. And after that unfortunate affair, every Indianan who came under my observation, endeavored by his gallantry and good conduct to convince the world of their capacity to do, under all circumstances, in battle or otherwise, their duty--yea, honor to themselves and their country. And they did so.
    I have seen much of this country and like it. Yet I would much rather be in Indiana. I like the state, God bless her; but I am here, I am poor, and have a large family to support. I can make money, and have concluded to send, by my son, who goes home, for my family. It is like taking my life to bid farewell to my state, but what better can I do? I am not now able to labor as I once could, and here is perhaps the best place for me. He goes fully authorized to sell the homestead, and all my effects, settle my business, pay all debts and leave the home once so dear.
    Please tender my thanks to my friends for their kind defense of my reputation. I am proud to know that no Kentuckian, or other person, can assail it without incurring the displeasure of a generous, kind and good people.
    God bless you, my friend, and the state.
JOSEPH LANE.       
Evansville Daily Journal, Indiana, March 1, 1850, page 2


Columbia River opposite Mr. Burns'
December 8, 1849
My dear wife
    Here I am again going
ahead leaving my kind and loving wife and family anxiously preparing ahead to roll on the billows of the great Pacific asking for favorable winds to widen the distance between me and all that is dear to me but enough I have to go and the sooner I am back the better. I want you to take more than special care of the girls; there is more danger of their men now than of any other kind which grieves me to be away at this time--for God's sake do prevent them from going out of night to parties no matter who courts after them and although Capt. Jones is [from] a highly respectable family yet there is great danger to be found from our daughters' staying all night there or going to parties with them--do prevent them from doing either.
    I do not want to dictate in small matters, but for god's sake look well
to the foregoing, as also to our dear little George, do not let him go about or cross the river without you. I have written to Capt. Couch to send you all shoes, also George a pair of boots.
    Walter Pomeroy says that if you want any money he will let you have it. I only say so to you to let you know what he says.
    Do not sell any of our property till I get back, which shall be soon.
    Tell my old friend the gov [i.e., Joseph Lane] to write me by every ship that leaves for California and to advise me what is best to do, whether to buy a vessel or come home with goods, and if so what kind of goods. It seems to me that furniture is a good article to bring to Oregon.
    My dear wife, take care and do as you think best, and I will be satisfied. Let me here suggest that you employ a cook and for god's sake save
yourself in your old age--my kind love to the children may God bless them and the richest of all blessings on you is the desire of your affectionate husband
W. G. T'Vault                        



On board the brig Josephine
December 9th, 1849
My dear son
    I am now going down the Columbia and will not have an opportunity of writing to you after we leave Astoria.
    I hope you, your mother and sisters are all well and may kind providence guard and bless you with good health until I return.
    My dear George I want you to be a good boy do not run about in the streets go to school, obey your mother and Gov Lane be careful do not go about the river take good care of yourself do not quarrel nor dispute with other boys.
    Write to Capt. Couch for your boots and your mother's and sisters' shoes.
    My dear son I do hope and pray you will do well until I return I will come home as soon as I can nothing will stop me but death or disappointment from being back by first of February next.
    God bless you all I want you to be careful of yourselves do [so] for my sake.
    Give my best respects to Gov Lane tell him I will write from San Francisco as soon as I arrive--your affectionate father
W. G. T'Vault                       
Tell Gov Lane that I will write him every opportunity and do hope that Judge Bryant will not be detained by the [illegible]; I hear she is aground. All is well with me hoping that I may continue so with all at home and elsewhere.
December 9th
W. G. T'Vault



    Articles of agreement made and entered into this 7th day of January 1850 between W. G. T'Vault  of the first part and H. G. Parks of the other, witnesseth the said parties agree to form a partnership for carrying on the slaughtering of beeves, hogs etc., also the establishing [of] a market of meat, vegetables etc. in the town of Oregon City, said partnership to commence from this date and continue unless dissolved by mutual consent for the term of three months, upon the terms following, that is to say--
    The said T'Vault is to furnish a house and lot, the house to be for a slaughter and market house, the market house to house [a] store, the lot to be
suitable for keeping cattle and hogs, also to furnish a capital of two hundred and fifty dollars and to superintend and purchase beeves and cause them to be delivered in the slaughter pen or lot, said T'Vault is to charge no mill for said house and lot nor for any service for delivering stock in the slaughter lot, the said T'Vault is to take a receipt for all monies that he may pay out for marketable supplies and cause the same to be entered on the books of the firm.
    In consideration of the same, said Parks agrees to furnish two hundred and fifty dollars capital stock and to cause the
mass [of] any quantity of beeves suitable for the market to be slaughtered provided the same can be obtained, and to market the same, and superintend the sale of all marketable articles and in fact the said Parks is to superintend the slaughtering of all beeves and hogs and sale of the same as well as all other marketable articles and keep an exact account of the amount of sales and enter the same each day on a book to be kept for those purposes and at the end of each week there shall be a settlement made; each party accounting for this amount he may expend if the same has been expended for the use of the firm it is to apply to the same use of the firm, and said Parks to to charge milling for his services.
    The above agreements are mutual between the parties.
    In witness whereof we have hereunto put our hands this day and date above written.
[signed]  W. G. T'Vault
                H. G. Parks
Witness: R. R. Thompson


Extract of a Letter from Gen. Joseph Lane to the Editor.
Oregon City, January 28th, 1850.
    Dear Sir: You will doubtless see the published proceedings of a meeting of the citizens of this place who formed themselves into a company for the purpose of sending to the States to purchase or build two steamers, suitable for the navigation of the Columbia and Willamette rivers. The necessary amount of money was subscribed, and paid. I was kindly selected by the agent of the company. I was so strongly urged, and daily expecting my successor to arrive, and knowing the great necessity of the measure, I at first concluded to go. But upon more mature reflection I declined, and determined not to abandon my post for one moment, but remain in the faithful discharge of my duty until my successor is on the spot. I know the condition of the country and know the necessity of my constant presence in the Territory. So you will do me the kindness to contradict any rumor that may reach the States of my probable return. I did not ask the office; but at the request of President Polk, yourself and other good friends I accepted it, and in twenty-four hours time was on my way to Oregon. I reached Leavenworth by steamboat and there with my own money I purchased horses, provisions &c., and then by the middle of September took the road via Santa Fe; from which place I packed on a mule my provisions and blankets, putting on my pack every morning and taking it off every evening, helped to cook my provisions, and for one hundred and ten nights slept upon the ground or snow without tent or shelter.
    From Fort Leavenworth to Los Angeles in California, my trip did not cost the government a dime. From there to San Francisco I came in the government transport; and from San Francisco to the mouth of the Columbia I paid one hundred dollars, and from there to this place I worked my way in a Chinook canoe.
    Since I have been here I have traveled all over the Territory for the purpose of putting our Indian affairs on proper footing. I have seen most of the numerous tribes and encouraged relations of peace and friendship with them. I have visited tribes never before visited by white men, except in a few instances. During this whole service, I rode my own horse, slept upon my own blanket, and killed game for my subsistence, making no expense to the government. Now, my dear sir, here I am. I have sent for my family, who will come to Oregon next summer. I am poor and getting old--unable in consequence of my wound to work hard. I have no profession to fall back upon; but with the help of my family, being near the gold mines, perhaps I can get along. Actuated by an ardent desire to do my duty, I have had much expense, many hard nights ride in Mexico; quick and bloody fights without regard to personal safety. These things, with my hard winter's trip to Oregon and the faithful discharge of my duty, will not, I feel confident, entitle me to any favor from the government. The facilities given to others are denied to me. But I shall not complain, if I can get my family here. I am willing to say farewell to the States. Goodbye homestead and friends. I shall not again visit our beloved Indiana. God bless her, may she always prosper and grow stronger and stronger in Democracy; and palsied be the tongue that would attempt to injure her reputation.
*      *      *
    With great respect I am, sir, your ob't. serv't.,
    Hon W. J. Brown.                                               JOSEPH LANE.
Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, June 6, 1850, page 1




Whereas a certain letter has this day been read to this meeting from the "New York Weekly Tribune" of January 19th 1850 dated September 8th 1849 over the fictitious signature of "Lansdale" grossly abusing the character and misrepresenting the conduct of Governor Lane, while pretending to represent his standing and influence among the people of Oregon;
    Be it unanimously Resolved
in the opinion of this meeting that the charges contained  in said letter against Gov. Lane are entirely false and without foundation and could only have proceeded from a combination of every malevolent falsehood, and that the efforts of such base correspondents desire elsewhere [ink loss] they have received her unanimous contempt for the falsehoods and calumny contained in that communication;
    Resolved that Governor Lane by his gentlemanly deportment and 
[ink loss] exertions in the discharge of his official duties while residing among us is entitled to the confidence, respect and approbation of all good men;
    Resolved that Messrs. Greeley & McElroy, editors of the New York Tribune, be and are hereby respectfully requested to give to the public the real names of the author of the letter above referred to;
    Resolved that copies of these proceedings signed by all present be sent with a request of publication to the New York Tribune, the New York Herald, the Washington Union, the Indiana State Sentinel and the Oregon Spectator.
Samuel Burch C. D. Embree D. R. Lewis
Issac A. Flint E. A. Thorp
H. R. Shaw W. C. Brown
James Kimzey John H. Thering
Wm. J. Morgan Ira L. Townsend
[ink loss] Linville Thos. J. Lovelady
John B. Bounds Walter J. Matney
[ink loss] M. Waller H. M. McNary
[ink loss] F. Burch Harrison Brunk
A. J. Gilliam Wm. Duran
David Goff J. McDaniel
John Nichol R. R. Payne
Joshua Shaw Jesse Roberts
Alexander Blevens B. Dove
Gabriel Hardison W. J. Cole
T. O. Waller Fielden M. Thorp [Fielding M. Thorp]
B. F. Nichols H. N. V. Holmes
J. W. Nesmith Robert Gilliam
Duff Kimsy Adam Brown
Solomon Shelton Jesse Gage
Samuel F. Goff J. M. Simpson
Henry Hill John Smith
Jesse Morris Aaron Chamberlin
L. Williams John Cose
T. Burbank W. W. Wiamas
H. Burbank W. S. Gilliam
Aa. Burbank W. Gage
G. T. Miller Marquis Gilliam
Thos. L. Bounds Joseph Gage
R. R. Boothby Samuel Gage
A. Burbank Daniel Dearborn
W. H. McCarty John Aldridge
G. T. Smith Jas. A. O'Neil
Alonzo Wood John Lewis
John Weymire [Waymire] James [illegible]
Nelson Roberts James E. Elkins
Elmore Wood [Elmer Wood] Salmon [illegible]
R. R. Boothby
Ben Nichols
Henry W. Evney
Henry C. Oliver
L. B. Smith
J. D. Waller
John Barrows
William Myer
J. Lamson
Matthew Lyons
Joseph Carmack
F. Waymire
Nathaniel Ford
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Department of State
    Washington, 20th December 1850.
Hon. Jesse D. Bright,
    of U.S. Senate
        Sir
            In reply to your note of this morning, I have the honor to state that I have caused an examination to be made of the proper files of this Department, and that no complaints or charges have been found therein against General Joseph Lane, late Governor of the Territory of Oregon, and ex-officio Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
I am, sir, respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Danl. Webster
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Oregon City May the 26, 1851
Genl. Palmer
    Dear Sir,
        I have just returned from Astoria, where I found all right. Clatsop will give over one hundred and fifty votes & not more than six votes against me. Lewis County will give me one hundred fifty votes, Clackamas two hundred against fifty; in Washington I will not lose thirty votes. In Marion I think I will divide the vote and also in Linn. Lane County I can't tell anything about; in Umpqua I shall get all the votes or nearly so; in Yamhill you will know better than I do how the vote will be. I have strong faith in old Yamhill. She will be right side up; so says Joel Perkins, who is down here at this time.
    Now, sir, let me tell you what I regret escaped my memory while speaking at Lafayette, that is that I will request Congress not only to make an additional appropriation for the defraying [of] the expense of the Cayuse War but also ask that each and every officer, noncommissioned officer, musician and private who served in that war be allowed the same bounty of land that other soldiers who have served their country are entitled to under the law of Congress and I have no doubt but it will be done made and provided.
    And furthermore let me tell you that I have no doubt but it will be done. I pledge myself to try hard to get [it] done.
    Leave nothing undone that can be honorably done to help me; see my friends and talk for me all you can. I want to beat Wilson badly. I will do good for this Territory and no mistake.
    Read as much of this letter as you please on day of election.
With great respect
    I am, sir, your obt. servt.
        Jo. Lane
Letter, Joseph Lane to Palmer, Oregon Historical Society Research Library Mss. 114, folder 1/18


(From the Madisonian.)
Letter from General Lane.
    We are allowed to make the following extract from a letter from General Joseph Lane, to a gentleman in this city:
Oregon City, June 6, 1851.       
    Dear Sir: . . . I have been hard at work in the mines. I got home on the 28th of April last, and next day commenced the canvass for Delegate to Congress, and was every day in the saddle until the day of election, which was Monday last, and on that day I was one hundred and twenty miles from home. Dr. Wilson was put in nomination in opposition to me, and warmly supported by his friends. He is one of the early settlers in the territory, a clever gentleman, and good electioneer. The election is now over, and I am elected by over 1,500 majority. . . . I have received more than four-fifths of all the votes given in the territory, over one of the most popular men in it. . . . In a few days I shall set out for the gold diggings in the southern portion of this territory, for the purpose of winding up some unsettled business, and will then leave here (about the first of October) for Washington City.
    . . . Present my compliments to all friends in Indiana, and especially your good lady and family.
                Your sincere friend,
                        JOSEPH LANE.
Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, August 21, 1851, page 2



Camp Stuart, Rogue River, June 28 '51       
    Editor of the Statesman, Dear Sir:--When I left Oregon City, I promised to write often, but up to this moment I have not had an opportunity to write you. Active operations have ceased, and an occasion is offered for me to redeem the promise which I made, and I proceed to give in brief an account of the various battles which have just been terminated with the Indians on Rogue River by a detachment of the First Dragoons and a number of volunteers, under the command of Brevet Major Kearny, a portion of which battles I had the pleasure of witnessing. On Saturday the 21st inst., while passing through the canon, I was met by a party of men, who informed me that war had commenced in good earnest, and that a severe battle had taken place between Major Kearny and the Indians; that Capt. Stuart had been killed; that others were wounded, and that the Indians were gathering from every quarter. I at once pushed forward, and on Sunday night reached Rogue River Valley, a distance (from the camp) of about 30 miles.
    Soon after picketing our animals an express arrived at our camp on his way to the ferry on Rogue River, who informed me that the Major had by that time set out with his command, dragoons and volunteers, for the purpose of making a forced march during the night in order to attack the Indians at daybreak the next morning. Early on Monday morning I set out with the hope of falling in with the Major or the Indians retreating from his command, and made a hard day's ride but failed to find the Major or the Indians. On Tuesday I proceeded to Camp Stuart with the hope of hearing of the command, but as yet no tidings had been received of their whereabouts. Late in the evening Capt. Scott and T'Vault, with a small party, came in for supplies and reinforcements. They informed me that two battles had been fought, one early on Monday morning, and one in the afternoon. In the last fight the Indians posted themselves in a dense hammock, where they defended themselves for four hours and until the darkness of the night enabled them to make their escape. In both fights the Indians suffered severely. Several of our party were wounded, but none mortally. T'Vault received an arrow through his hat, just grazing his head. By nine o'clock at night we were on the march, and joined the Major at 2 o'clock Wednesday morning, when I had the pleasure of meeting my friends Applegate, Freaner and others.
    Early in the morning we set out to carry into effect the plan of operations which had been agreed upon, and proceeded down the river and on Thursday morning crossed about seven miles from the ferry. We soon found an Indian trail leading up a large creek, and in a short time overtook and charged upon a party of Indians, killing one. The rest made their escape in a dense chaparral. We again pushed forward as rapidly as possible until late in the evening, when we gave battle to another party of Indians, few of whom escaped. Twelve women and children were taken prisoners; several of those who escaped were wounded.
    At this point we camped, and next morning took up the line of march and scoured the country to Rogue River, recrossing at the Table Mountains, and reached camp at dark on the evening of the 27th.
    The Indians had been completely whipped in every fight. Some fifty of them were killed, many wounded, and thirty taken prisoners. It has, however, cost us dearly. We have lost Capt. Stuart, one of the bravest of the brave. A more gentlemanly man never lived; a more daring soldier never fell in battle. Too much cannot be said for Major Kearny. For more than ten days he was in the saddle at the head of his command scouring the country and pouncing upon the Indians wherever they could be found. He has done much to humble the Rogue River Indians, and taught them to know that they can be hunted down and destroyed. Capt. Walker of the Rifles deserves the highest praise for gallant conduct. Lt. Williamson of the Topographical Corps and Lt. Irvin and command also deserve high praise for gallant conduct. The volunteers behaved well--nobly. Applegate, Scott, T'Vault for good conduct as guides and courage in battle are entitled to great credit. Capt. Armstrong, Blanchard, Boone and all of our Oregon men deserve credit for their good conduct and bravery. Col. Freaner from California with a party of volunteers from the mines promptly tendered their services and behaved nobly.
    Never has an Indian country been invaded with better success, nor at a better time. The Indians had organized in great numbers for the purpose of killing and plundering our people passing to and from the mines. The establishment of a garrison in this district will be necessary for the maintenance of peace. That done, and a good agent located here, and we shall have no more trouble in this quarter.
    This morning the question arose what must be done with the prisoners. The Major was anxious to turn them over to the citizens of Oregon to be delivered to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs. The citizens were generally bound to the mines, and none could be found to take charge of them. The Major was determined not to release them, holding that it would be wrong to give them up before a peace could be made. Consequently he determined to take them to San Francisco and then send them by sea to Oregon.
    With great respect I am, sir
    Yr. obt. srvt.
    Jo Lane
The bulk of this letter was transcribed from a typescript on the microfilm of the Joseph Lane Letters,"copied from original letters in possession of Asahel Bush, Salem, Oregon." The first page, missing from the typescript, is copied from the Oregon Statesman of July 22, 1851, page 2.



Permanent Camp, Rogue River
    June 28th, 1851.
To Brevt. Maj. Kearny
    1st Dragoons, U.S.A.
        Sir: Allow me for myself and my fellow citizens of Oregon to express our sincere gratitude to you and the officers and soldiers under your command for the prompt, able and efficient manner you have conducted your military operations against the Indians of this valley.
    Be assured, sir, that for the bravery and patriotism you have displayed in their defense the people of Oregon will ever and gratefully join your names to the list of those of her dearest friends.
    Though we are aware that [for] an officer like yourself already known to fame and highly appreciated by his country no new laurels can be gathered in a field like this, yet allow us to assure you that should your love of duty prevail so far over your private interests as to cause your return to Oregon, be assured, sir, that to no other officer of the army would the people of this Territory more confidently entrust their interests and safety.
I am, sir, with great
    Respect your sincere
        Friend
            Joseph Lane
   

[Kearny's handwriting]
    This was consequent on my saving the settlements by attacking and beating the Rogue River Indians. Joseph Lane, Esq., had been a successful general in Mexico--recently governor of Oregon--and was a candidate (& elected) for Congress.

Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.  From a typescript transcription on OHS letterhead, misdated June 28th, 1852.



Governors Camp, Rogue River       
July 8th 1851       
Dear Bush
    I write you from Camp Stuart a brief account of Major Kearny's operations in the Rogue River country, and that he had very properly determined to take the prisoners with him. I arrived at the Shasta diggings on the morning of the 30th ult, which is within ten miles of the road leading to California on which the Major would pass by Wednesday noon. I had my business settled up and was ready to return to Oregon. Lt Irwin came in and reported that the Major had passed and would camp near the Shasta Butte, distant 25 miles. I told Irwin that if I could get the prisoners I would take them to Oregon and deliver them to the Governor or Supt of Indian Affairs.
    He immediately dispatched a courier to Major Kearny bearing my letter, proposing to take charge of the prisoners, which reached him by seven o'clock in the evening. The Major promptly dispatched Capt Walker with them, who arrived at my camp just before daylight on Thursday morning. When a party of Oregonians, numbering some twenty, among whom was Dan, Waldo [Dan. Waldo?] and Hunter and Rust of Kentucky and Simonson of Ia. bound to Oregon, kindly offered to assist in bringing them in. We immediately set out and arrived here safe with all the prisoners, yesterday noon, when I had the pleasure of finding Gov Gaines with some fifteen men. To him I delivered the prisoners. His intention is to see the Indians and if possible make peace.
    My son Jo will remain here with the Governor. By noon today I shall set out for the City but shall be compelled to travel quite slow, as I have to give protection to some wagoners who had the kindness to haul in some of the prisoners who were worn out traveling.
                        Yours truly
                        Jo. Lane
    P.S. I omitted to mention that on my way down Rogue River with the prisoners I had a conversation with a considerable number of Indians across the river, who gave me a terrible account of the invasion of their country by our people. That they had come on horses in great numbers invading every portion of their country, that they now were afraid to lay down to sleep for fear the white people would be upon them before they could wake, that they were tired of war and now wanted peace. I told them that the Governor was at the crossing of the river, that I would leave the prisoners with him, and that they must go and talk with him and make their propositions of peace to him, who would be glad to see and talk and make peace with them.
                        J. L.
"Copied from original letters in possession of Asahel Bush, Salem, Oregon." This particular letter was misfiled as being from 1857. The image of the original can be found on the second microfilm reel of the Jo Lane Papers.



(Copy.)
Oregon City 15th July 1851.
To
    The Honbl. Alexr. H. H. Stuart
        Secretary of State for the Land Department
            Washington.
                Sir,
                    I beg leave to state that in 1829 I took [the] Oregon City claim and made improvements on it. In 1842 I began to erect mills; in 1843 I had it surveyed by Jesse Applegate Esquire and recorded in the record book of land claims in Oregon Territory in accordance with the Organic Law, copy of which and of the record of claim I forward with this.
    Since 1845 I have permanently resided on it. Part of my claim was fenced previous to 1846 and all previous to the 4th March 1849, and I filed my intention to become an American citizen on the 30th May of the same year, as will be seen by the accompanying certificate. The late Mr. Thurston, the Delegate to Congress from this Territory, said I refused to file my intention to become an American citizen. In my letter of the 12th September 1850 I stated he must be cognizant of the fact--in reply in his speech in Congress on the 26th December 1850 he admitted he was aware I had filed what he says I called a declaration of my intention to become an American citizen--but stated he had Judge Bryant's authority for asserting that my declaration was not such as the law required. In answer I beg to state that my declaration was drawn up by the clerk of Judge Bryant's court.
    In 1850 the judges of election refused my vote. As the United States court was sitting at time, I brought the case before his honor Judge Pratt, who decided that my declaration of intention was legal and that I had a right to vote. I voted and have done so ever since. Abernethy's Island, which I took as part of my claim in 1829, was jumped in 1841 by Methodist missionaries and others, who formed themselves into a company by the name of the Willamette Milling Company, and subsequently they all sold out to George Abernethy Esquire, one of the missionaries and one of the original stockholders of the milling company.
    After we had organized a temporary government, I consulted P. H. Burnett Esquire, late Governor of California, then a citizen of this Territory, with the intention of taking legal measures to get rightful possession of Abernethy's Island. He told me he considered my right to the island as undoubted, but as agitating the question there might lead to trouble in this country, and as postponing the question could not invalidate my right, he recommended me to defer bringing the question forward until the government of the United States extended its jurisdiction over the country, when the courts could cause their decisions to be peaceably carried into effect. For these reasons, especially as I considered that quarrels between British subjects and American citizens in this Territory might cause a war between the United States and Great Britain, as then a British subject and as intending to become a citizen of the United States I considered I was bound in duty to the country I left and the country I adopted and as a Christian to do all I could to arrest so dreadful an evil from them. I therefore followed Mr. Burnett's advice--whether my fears were well founded or not is not for me today. I merely state the impression in my mind.
    After the government of the United States had extended its jurisdiction over the Territory, a short time after the arrival of W. P. Bryant Esquire, the supreme judge of the United States Court of this Territory, and before the courts were organized he bought Abernethy's Island, from George Abernethy Esquire and as the island was in Judge Bryant's district and as there was only one other judge, his honor Judge Pratt, in the Territory, from ignorance of the law at which I presume you will not be surprised when you know I have been forty-eight years in the Indian country. I thought as Judge Bryant was an interested party I could not bring the case forward till the bench was full, which did not take place till this spring. In the meantime Congress passed the Oregon Land Bill. Part of my claim [of] Abernethy Island is confirmed by Congress to the legal assigns of the Willamette Milling and Trading Company, and the remainder "shall be set apart and be at the disposal of the legislative assembly to the establishment and endorsement of a university to be located at such a place in the Territory as the legislative assembly may designate. provided. however. that all the lots in said claim sold or granted by Dr. John McLoughlin previous to the fourth day of March eighteen hundred and forty-nine shall be confirmed to the purchaser or donee or assigns to be certified to the Commissioner of the General Land Office by the Surveyor General and patents to issue on said certificate as in other cases provided further that nothing in this act contained shall be construed or executed as in any way to destroy or effect any right to land in said Territory holden or claimed under the provisions of the treaty or treaties existing between this country and Great Britain." The circumstances being such as I have the honor to relate, I respectfully request the government to designate the extent of my right to [the] Oregon City claim. I send you a copy of Judge Bryant's letter to the Honbl. H. J. Brown and of my answer. As to Mr. Thurston's I had referred [deferred?] noticing his conduct till he was here to prove before his and my fellow citizens that he made statements against me which he must have known to be false and that some facts which he stated he intentionally made a false deduction from them, and though unfortunately for me my conduct has been grossly misrepresented by malicious and designing persons to the government I left and the government I adopt. While I am certain every upright, honest citizen of this Territory acquainted with its history will testify that I exerted my utmost endeavor to render it the happy residence of civilized men, and though the first immigrants underwent great misery and suffered many hardships as the first immigrants to all new countries must, yet I am certain they will admit I did all I could to assist them, and but for my exertions their sufferings would have been much greater. Having acted in good faith, I trust the government will do me justice and not allow me to be the victim of malice, and I hope the unexpected state in which I find myself placed will be considered by you as an apology for the liberty I take in troubling you with this.
I am
    With great respect
        Your obedt. & humble servant
            John McLoughlin
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




    Genl. Lane, the newly elected delegate to Congress, informs me that he intends to take his departure for the States with the next steamer. He will be in New York the latter part of August or early part of September next. I hope some of our folks will make an effort to see him and will show him some attention. I would be glad if Father would invite him to come and see him at Parksville. The Genl. is a plain, blunt man of practical good sense and of generous impulses. His nomination was  cordially concurred in by the Whigs although he was a Democrat, and he has therefore I think no party antipathies in this region. He has seen a great deal of the rough and tumble life of the West and is probably as well acquainted with the situation and prospects of this country as any man in it. His family reside in Indiana, and he goes to the States thus early so that he may meet with his family before Congress commences its sittings. The Genl. I understand has an eye on the Presidency, and I believe has been nominated for that station in some parts of Indiana.
Thomas Nelson, letter dated July 21, 1851, Oregon City; Beinecke Library, Yale University




    GEN. LANE arrived in this city on Thursday evening last, direct from the Rogue River country. He leaves here tomorrow on the mail steamer for the States. We wish the brave old soldier a safe journey.
    When the General arrives in Washington and lays the true state of affairs before the government, we feel assured that justice will be done to the people of Oregon.

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, July 22, 1851, page 2



For the Spectator.
Umpqua, August 2, 1851.
Mr. Editor:
    Sir--I have observed of late a desire on the part of some to revive here in Oregon partyism, strike party lines, &c. Well, if this is necessary to promote the public good, and if striking party lines is essential to perpetuate republican principles, unity of action, &c., enabling us as one people to apply the Jeffersonian test to office seekers, "Is he honest, is he capable," teaching us to seek the substance of things, know that names are nothing, and that we can march to the polls unbiased, without fear or reserve, there to exercise the inestimable privilege which our forefathers purchased with their blood, feeling and acting as republican brothers--if party lines bring these things about, let them be struck. And if partyism and political division did not crumble old Rome to dust, let the lines be struck. And if it is for the want of division in politics that keeps the republics of South America and Mexico in perpetual civil war, and even threatened the great republic of the United States with division, let the lines be struck.
    If political division is necessary, why did not the founders of this republic recommend it? No; to the very contrary was their advice. The father of his country cautioned us in the most solemn manner against political division. Strike the lines of partyism in Oregon, then comes the tug of war between party zealots and political dabblers. And the papers at once cease to be impartial journals and are made the vehicles upon which designing politicians convey their misrepresentations, producing local animosity and civil discord. The greater the political excitement, the easier elections are carried by drunken brawl and mob law. By political excitement and strong party feeling in a community, base impostors are given a chance to flourish over honest and just principles, by attaching themselves to the strongest party. Such pettifoggers as can be hired with money to write slanders on a whole territory of people, charging them with being ungrateful adders and vipers, and even lend their aid to perjured deserters to write falsehoods and vile slanders on honest citizens [see letter on page 1, Oregon Spectator, July 22, 1851], for money gives counsel to renegade, enabling her to escape with her husband's effects. Such men as come among us with high-sounding titles, with their characters in their own keeping, as though it was predominant over public scrutiny. Such men's characters might be justly biographied even in Congress; then if they thought they could make themselves favorable with party, would be found figuring in letters of condolence, &c.
L. A. [most likely Lindsay Applegate]
Oregon Spectator, August 26, 1851, page 1



Nesmith's Mills, Oregon August 19th 1851
Dear Genl.,
    I embraced the opportunity of dropping you a line, merely to keep my promise, and not because we have any news. Joe called on me last week on his way in. He looks fat, ragged and sassy [saucy?], and says that he is agoing to stick to the claim and make a good home for his mother. Joe wants a wagon and team, and I am trying to get him one. He is in after supplies and says that he will return in a few days. You may rest assured that he shall have every assistance and encouragement that is in my power.
    You will doubtless have learned before this reaches you of the melancholy intelligence of Mrs. Gaines' death. She was thrown from a horse and recd. injuries which resulted in her death. The Indians out south all appear quiet and have committed no depredations since the recent treaty.
    We have a prospect of a respectable-sized emigration and generally conclude that times will improve this fall.
    Now I wish to talk about a little business matter. Enclosed is a bill of articles which I stand very much in need of, and if it is not asking too much I would be glad that you would send them by the earliest opportunity. I should have sent you the means, but owing to our mining operations out south I am at present a little hard run. However, if you will ship the articles and send the bill to Nat or Joe I will pay over the money to them forthwith. I wish the articles all to be of the best quality and want them shipped direct to Portland. It would perhaps be well to have them insured.
    Now if it is in your power to send those articles without discommoding yourself, please do so as soon as possible and forward the bill, together with the name of the vessel on which they are shipped. If you find it inconvenient to send them, please notify me accordingly so that I can make other arrangements. Don't fail to write me immediately on receipt of this.
I am as ever your
    Devoted friend
        J. W. Nesmith
   
    1 pair of French burr mill stones of the best quality, 4 feet in diameter, the runner to be 22 inches thick at the eye and 20 inches at the verge, 1 good bowstring [?] screen and bale to suit the above stone, 2 spindles 3 inches square, 5 feet 6 inches long, from the top collar to the foot of the spindle, the collar to be 3½ inches in diameter and 6 inches long, the cock head, above the collar, to be 8 inches long, 1 balance rhyne and driver to suit the above stones and of the most approved pattern, 2 pinions 19 inches in diameter with 3-inch spaces, to be hung on the spindles, 19 inches from the foot of the spindle to the center of the teeth or cogs, 2 boxes or steps for the foot of the spindles, also one of Young & Southwick's No. 2 smutting
machines. If the above pattern of smutting machine cannot be had, send some other kind of medium size and good quality. All the above articles to be shipped direct to Portland, Oregon Territory for
J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Oregon City O.T.   
    Aug. 20th 1851
Dear Father
    I recd. your favor from San Francisco by T'Vault a few days since and am proud to hear you were so kindly treated by your friends at that place. I will have the Denison matter attended to with dispatch. Times are pretty tight with us in the milling business. Since you left I sold lumber enough to Noyes Smith to place a credit of $1619 on his order. We have paid Ralston $550 and about 300 to Adair in flour, so you see we are working slowly along but continually drained of money.
    Joe came down last week, and is about to buy a wagon and oxen to be paid by me in flour. He says he could not do any fencing without a team to haul rails with. He will go back this week, and I think will stick close [to] business, as he seems to be well pleased with the Umpqua country. Our country is blessed with some bilious fever and a good many cases of chills & fever. I am just recovering from an attack of bilious fever. Civilization is just beginning to have its effect.
    The wife of Gov. Gaines was thrown from a mule while riding from Tansy Pt. to Clatsop Plains and so dangerously hurt that she only survived a very short time. I don't know what the Governor will do now, having lost what I consider a great deal more the better half of himself.
    Mr. Thompson has not returned from San Francisco yet, nor have I heard from him. As soon as he gets back we will pay off the balance of the Ralston and the Meek debts. We have contracted for the building of a new bridge for $1800. The work is now under way. I will keep you advised of the state of things here. You must let me know from time to time what is going on in the old world.
    Bush has made you his agent for the Atlantic States. I told him you would attend to the subscription.
Truly your obt. son
    N. H. Lane
Joseph Lane
   

P.S.--Ingalls the blacksmith beat old Hugh Burns very badly with a stick a few days since.
N.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Letter from Gen. Lane.
Panama, Aug. 21, 1851.
    I have the pleasure to inform you that I arrived in this city yesterday morning. I am much pleased with my trip; the very names of the boats on which I traveled were calculated to make the trip pleasant. I left on the Willamette. From Astoria to San Francisco I came on the Columbia, and from San Francisco to this place on the fine steamer Oregon. So I have just got out of, or rather off of, Oregon. Tomorrow morning I shall set out for Chagres. The most of our passengers have already gone; I delayed going for the reason that it is understood that no steamer will go from Chagres before the 25th, consequently I preferred staying here to staying in Chagres. The Oregon brought down four hundred passengers. From Cape St. Louis to near this place the weather was excessively hot. Yet notwithstanding the crowd of passengers and great heat we had but three deaths on the passage. One was a lady from near New Harmony, Ia. to California, where she was taken sick, and in that condition came on board. She was buried at Acapulco.
    Her husband, Mr. Wiltse, remained at that place for the purpose of getting his babe--only two months old when the mother died--nursed. Mr. Bush, of San Francisco, bound to Rochester, N.Y., came on board sick, said he should die, and did. The third was a young man who caused his death, as was supposed, by eating fruit at Acapulco.
    The Oregon has a lucky name, is a fine boat, and [is] commanded by a good sailor and popular gentleman, and has a worthy set of subordinate officers. The Willamette and Columbia are also fine boats, with first-class accommodations and gentlemanly and experienced officers.
    I have had the good fortune to fall in with Major Lee and Capt. Hardcastle, of the army, and Dr. Hewett, late surgeon of the army, all of whom I find to be honorable gentlemen and noble-hearted, chivalrous Americans. I shall have the pleasure of their company to the States. Hardcastle has been engaged in the boundary survey, and has acquitted himself with credit. He speaks well of Col. Weller, and says there was no good cause of removal, and that Weller's successor has expended some two hundred thousand dollars and done no good.
    My health is excellent.
Respy. yours
    JO. LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, September 30, 1851, page 2


Correspondence of the Oregon Statesman.
LETTER FROM GEN. LANE.
The Cuban Revolution--Particulars of the Capture and Execution
of Col. Crittenden and Command--General Lopez Taken Prisoner
and Garroted--Reflections, &c.
Havana, Cuba, Sept. 1, 1851.
    Dear Bush.--On arriving at Chagres, we received information of the invasion of Cuba by Lopez--that he had several fights, with success; and also the melancholy intelligence of the capture of Col. Crittenden and some fifty of his command, and of their execution by order of the authorities of the island. My desire to know the facts induced me to take passage for this place instead of going on the Georgia directly to New York. I have been here now two days, and can give you authentic information as to the invasion.
    Lopez, with some five or six hundred men, mostly Americans, effected a landing, and at first [illegible] sought advantage, but from necessity he divided his forces. Col. Crittenden, with his command of over one hundred men, was attacked by a large force of the royal or queen's troops, in which affair Crittenden and command behaved most gallantly. Overpowered and broken, he determined to take his chance, in open boats, upon the broad ocean, with the hope of being picked up by some friendly ship. In this condition, after having been at sea one hundred hours, without water, bread or arms, he was picked up by a Spanish war steamer, brought in and murdered--an account of which you have no doubt seen ere this.
    Lopez was taken the day before our arrival here--brought in from the country last evening, and this morning, at 7 o'clock, executed (garroted). Many of his party are prisoners, and have been sentenced to ten years' hard labor in the galleys. You will see that this second expedition of Lopez is crushed, and that he has paid dearly for attempting to liberate a people who deceived and betrayed him--a people who deserve no better government than they now have. Many noble young men--American citizens--have been deceived and sacrificed. It is greatly to be hoped that their fate will be a warning to others, and that no further attempt will be made upon Cuba, until it is done in a way that will ensure success.
    Col. Crittenden was a nephew of John J. Crittenden. My health is excellent. I shall leave this evening via New Orleans.
Your friend,
    JO. LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, October 14, 1851, page 2




Oregon City Sept. 12th 1851
Dear Mother
    I received your letter about the first of May and was glad to hear of your coming to Oregon and was very much gratified to receive your long-looked-for letter. It was the first I knew of Sarah being married and my being uncle to several little Blampieds.
    Now as to myself I went to California in the spring of forty-nine and returned in the fall. I purchased an interest of one-eighth in the Oregon Milling Company for the sum of thirteen thousand dollars, Genl. Joseph Lane and son being the other owners. We met with some very heavy losses by high water doing us damage to the amount of twenty thousand dollars in a few months after I made my purchase. We have a flour mill and saw mill. The property is an island on the great falls of the Willamette and must always be very valuable.
    I expect Oregon to be my home, as we have now a large family, and I do not know of any place in the States where they could be more healthy than here. We have good schools, plenty of preaching, and potatoes of the best kinds. Sarah mentions that you will all come to Oregon in a year or two. To enable you to come as soon as possible I have sent you one hundred dollars by the hands of the Delegate to Congress from Oregon Joseph Lane. He will send it to you, if there is not too much risk, through the mail. Should you not receive it by the first of January you must write to him at Washington, and should it be that what I have sent you is not sufficient you will write to him (Genl. Joseph Lane) telling your desire to come to Oregon and that you have not sufficient means to bring you, and that I will pay the amount. I want you to come next summer if possible, as we are all anxious to see you. These remarks are intended for you all. There is a good chance for James either to work at his trade in town or to go on a farm. There is plenty of good land to be taken yet, and they will be entitled to 320 acres. You may ask for information as to time of starting and outfit. I will give you all I can. As to economy, find out whether you can buy wagons on the Missouri River cheaper than you can bring them from Ohio. Get light two-horse wagons, good and strong; bring as little as possible, provisions, bedding and wearing apparel sufficient to last you through. Start from Ohio in time to leave the settlements in Missouri as soon as the grass will permit, say, about the first of May. Start with the the first company if you can and keep with it if possible. If your means will permit have team enough to go through mud holes and up hills without assistance.
    Try to sleep in your wagon if you can and let your cooking utensils be of tin as far as possible; have tin plates and cups. Take a liberal supply of coffee and tea; you will find it have a better flavor than you did before. In addition to the above let your stock of provisions be flour, bacon, beans, rice, dried fruit and crackers, medicines, spirits of some kind, camphor and some pills are about all that is necessary. There is one thing I would urge. Get through with the first; by this you get good grass and escape the fall rains in the Cascade Mountains.
    We are all well and our family consists of six children, four girls and two boys. Their names Eliza Fry aged 9, Sarah Ann aged 8, Mary Ellen aged 6, Lewis Cass aged 4, Martha Josephine aged 2, Robert Henry 5 months.
    Not having a personal acquaintance with Mr. Blampied I hereby tender him my best respects with the hope of seeing you all in Oregon in a twelvemonth.
    Write to me, and if there is anything I can serve you in I shall be most happy to do it. Harriet sends her love to you all and will be much rejoiced to see you in Oregon.
Your very undutiful
    R. R. V. H. Thompson
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library. Addressed to Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson, Evansburg, Coshocton County, Ohio.



Correspondence of the Oregon Statesman.
Letter from Gen. Lane.
Evansville, Indiana,
    Sept. 19, 1851.
    Dear Bush.--From Havana I wrote you, giving an account of my passage to that place, of the failure of the Cuban expedition, of the fate of Lopez and others. In that letter I perhaps did injustice to the natives of Cuba; but, if I did, let me tell you that it was not intentioned. One thing is certain; the expedition received little or no assistance from the Cubans. But upon inquiring particularly relative to their wishes and feelings upon a change of government (and I had an opportunity on my passage from Havana to New Orleans to learn much from a gentleman on board who has seen much of Cuba recently), I am inclined to the opinion that they are heartily tired of the tyrannical government under which they live, which, by the way, is the worst, most cruel and oppressive on the face of God's earth. But they cannot help themselves nor render assistance to those who would fain free them and give them a good government. They are not allowed to own or carry arms. They have no organization, nor can they organize. So closely are they watched that whenever a few of them are seen together in a suspicious manner, they are arrested and lodged in prison.
    The late expedition caused the arrest of some 2000 Creoles, many of whom have suffered death; many were imprisoned and others banished.
    The day is not far distant when Cuba will be free. Such a system of tyranny and oppression cannot long last. How or by whom it is to be done, God only knows. One thing, in my mind, is certain; it will be done, and that ere long.
    I had the pleasure of reaching my old home on the 12th inst., in excellent health, and found my family in the enjoyment of good health, since which time I have received the visits of many old and good friends. My heart has been often glad; yet nothing looks right. The people, though as clever as any in the world, don't look healthy as they do in Oregon; nor is the country like Oregon. I long to be there. I would not give my claim in Oregon for twenty miles upon the banks of the Ohio, and be compelled to remain in this country. Oregon is my country--my home--and just as soon as I can I will again be there with my family. I shall labor faithfully for the promotion of her interests, and let me say that I have little doubt of procuring the passage of such laws as are necessary for thar purpose.
Your friend,
    JO. LANE.
    My letters will explain the reason why I came by New Orleans and not by Washington, as contemplated when I left Oregon. Ere long I will be in Washington. I will neglect nothing that I can do for our Territory.
J.L.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, December 23, 1851, page 2



Oregon City O.T.
    Sep. 21st 1851
Dear Father
    Times are still dull. The largest portion of the emigration is now in the settlements, and I can't see that they have effected any material change in times except the reduction of 50 cts. per day on common labor and a good demand for flour. Money seems to be a little more plenty than when you left. We have not paid any debts since I wrote you, but will pay off the Ralston, Meek and I think the Adair debt soon. We had a great amt. of rain in the latter part of August and the first of this month, so much that it raised the river above the falls 4 or 5 feet, carrying off our temporary dam, but the weather has cleared up and the days are beautiful, and the river has fallen back to the old mark, leaving us very short of water again. There is more sickness in the country at this time than has ever been known, though nothing serious. I hope you have had a safe and speedy passage to the bosom of your friends, where I suppose you will learn of Emily's marriage to Creed Floed. Well, I hope he will make her a good and kind husband. I have not heard from Joe for some time, but I think Capt. Wm. Martin will be in soon from the Umpqua and bring some news from him. I have taken the amt. of stock on hand &c. and have the books so arranged as to show everything just right. I have no bookkeeper, as Mr. Davenport has left me. I have that to do myself. If we were not so pressed with our debts all the time nothing could keep us from making money pretty fast, but we are not able to buy wheat enough to keep the mill going and consequently have to let Abernethy & Barlow and one or two others make all the profits, but I have hopes that this state of things will not last always. Write to me as often as you can and let me know how all the folks are, and my children. You will certainly go down and see them. I will write again soon.
Your obedient son and friend
    N. H .Lane
Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Cincinnati September 24, 1851
Dear General
    Allow me to congratulate you upon your return to your old home. It gives me great pleasure to hear of your being again amongst us, and the representative of the New Empire in the Far West, although I regret that you have changed your residence on the Ohio for one on the Columbia.
    I learn that the executive committee of this county have sent you an invitation to come here whenever it may suit your convenience. Permit me to urge your acceptance of the invitation. I need not tell you what pleasure it would give your old soldiers to take you by the hand after so long a separation, that you know--but there are thousands of your friends here who have not had the pleasure of a personal acquaintance with you who would warmly welcome one of whom they have heard so much and in whom they have so much confidence. It is not entirely a selfish feeling that induces one to urge that, as you already know, your friends are determined to instill upon making you the Democratic candidate for President in 1852. You have the advantage of all the other candidates in this state because you have already so many personal friends your presence is all that [is] necessary to ensure your success. The committee have, I presume, informed you of the struggle in which we are engaged, and of the assistance which your presence will be to us. It is of the utmost importance that we should carry the state this fall, in view of the contest next year. I know that your sympathies are with us, and all we ask is that you will come and review our troops.
I am very respectfully
    Yours
        La Fayette Mosher
Hon. Joseph Lane
    Evansville,
        In.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Lafayette O.T. Sept. 30th 1851
Dear Genl.,
    I wrote you some six weeks ago enclosing a bill for mill stones and irons. I hope that you will avail yourself of the earliest opportunity of shipping them, as much depends upon my receiving them at the earliest opportunity. Your Salem friends have got burrs and a smutting apparatus, consequently they are making a better article of flour than I possibly can, and are directing the mining trade from me.
    Abernethy will have a vessel leaving New York sometime during the winter, which will afford a good opportunity for shipping them direct to Portland. Whenever they are shipped forward the bills and I will immediately pay over the amt. to your agent here. You may think me importunate on this subject, however you will excuse my anxiety on that subject when you consider how much is depending upon the matter.
    I am now at Lafayette attending to the settlement of a difficulty in the Lodge between A. J. Hembree & Wm. Martin. I think it will be settled in a day or two.
    We have but little occurring here now that would interest you. The emigrants are arriving in tolerable condition. We have had some considerable rain during the early part of this month. Much wheat has been damaged, however the losses have not been sufficient to affect the market seriously.
    In politics we have nothing very interesting. You will see an able
article in the Statesman in relation to the seat of government.
    It is generally supposed to have been written by Judge Pratt. I believe that all the Judges have expressed
[illegible] against the liability of the location act. Where the next legislature will meet is a matter of great uncertainty. My candle has just about expired, and I must close in haste while I rem. yours truly
J. W. Nesmith
I am stopping with your friend Mat Davy [?], who after a diligent searching through his bachelor's apartments has been able to provide just sufficient candle to enable me to add this postscript, and enables [me] to kindly recommend to you
J. W. M.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Oregon City
        Oregon Territory
                1st Oct 1851
Hon. Joseph Lane
        Sir
    The treaty with the Rogue River Indians was concluded on the 14th July last. On the 15th July Gov. Gaines left for Oregon City and I was left in charge of a party of 12 men on Rogue River at the request of the Indian agent H. H. Spalding to remain in the country with the Indians until the superintendent or himself should return and make a purchase of the Indian lands. The object of leaving me in the country was to see that the terms of the treaty were observed and to visit all the Indians. This was done thoroughly. And I returned to Oregon City on the 10th Sept. last and on presenting my account to the superintendent, Dr. Dart, he said he had not authorized Mr. Spalding to have a parley etc., consequently would not pay anything etc. Now Dr. Dart was at Oregon City when Govr. Gaines and Mr. Spalding returned--this was on the 22nd July--Mr .Spalding made his report to Dr. Dart. And Mr. Spalding wrote me on the 28th day July stating that "Dr. Dart had resolved to meet the Indians about the 15th Sept. at the ferry on Rogue River or at Table Rock and requested I should retain what men I had and notify the Indians of his intention" etc. I done so--visiting all the Indians from the Kenyon on Umpqua to Table Rock on Rogue River, to which proposition the Indians consented.
    On the 14th day of August Dr. Dart dictated a letter to D. D. Bayley stating "if he would go into the Rogue River country and get the Indians to meet him at Port Orford he would pay him $5 per day and make the Indians a present" etc. Mr. Bayley reached Rogue River on the day I had concluded the arrangements with the Indians according to advice of Mr. Spalding. Upon the arrival of Bayley I hastened to Oregon City to see Dr. Dart before he should leave for Port Orford. I succeeded by making the trip in seven days and convinced Dr. D. of the impossibility of taking the Indians on the Coast, they never having been there and knowing nothing of it--besides it is almost an impossible chain of mountains etc. etc. Dr. D. again resolves to meet them in their own country and authorizes Mr. Cary (who is trading there) to say as much to the Indians.
    This, sir, is a brief account of this matter. My object in writing you is to get the use of your kindness and influence to see that the debt credited there (in all only $21.00) to be paid.
    Inasmuch as you are aware the importance of holding a treaty of peace with the Indians at the time Govr. Gaines made it and also the necessity of leaving a party with the Indians to see that the terms of the treaty be observed.
    I refer you to Govr. Gaines and Dr. Dart to satisfy you that I done the part assigned me faithfully and satisfactorily to both parties. I was with the Grave Creek Indians near a week and passed amongst them several times they were left perfectly friendly and expressed a disposition to remain so.
    And no well-disposed person can reasonably find fault with living upon terms of peace with those Indians knowing that their country abounds in gold mines and our people spreading over it daily. Long before I left many of the young Indian men had engaged and were working for the miners and were giving satisfaction. And I truly believe a better step could not have been taken than this one by Govr. Gaines.
    Indulging a hope you will honor my present request with your consideration,
        I remain
            Hon. Sir
                C. M. Walker
N.B. I am quite unwell, which I hope will serve as an excuse for this scrawl. C.M.W.



Island Mills O.T.
    Octr. 6th 1851
Dear Father
    By the last mail I recd. your letter from Panama of the 21st August, for which kindness I feel very grateful. I am extremely glad to learn of your safe arrival at that port in good health, as I feared much you would be sick on the trip.
    I have no news of importance; peace and quietude seems to prevail throughout the Territory until you arrive in the Rogue River country, and from that quarter we hear of some Indian depredation every day or two, but nothing of any importance.
    Squire T'Vault has returned from the country in the neighborhood of Port Orford, where he was not successful in viewing out a road from Fort Umpqua to Port Orford. He and three others are still surviving out of a party of nine whites, the other five having been murdered by the Indians of the Coquille River. T'Vault says that he discovered the most fertile valley on that river that mortal has ever been permitted to look upon. Ash, maple and other timber familiar to the Ohio and Wabash bottoms with the wild cucumber vine is to be found there in its most flourishing state, and he is of opinion that corn could be raised there in great abundance.
    Our mills or rather flour mill is doing a very fair business. Flour is advancing in California and is now worth from 14 to $16 per barrel. Our flour mill is kept running day and night and still making the best flour in the country. The new bridge will soon be completed. The old one is already tore down, and our railroad communication with Oregon City is for a few days suspended.
    I have not heard anything from Joe for some days. The last news he was on the claim, building houses and fence. I have no doubt but he will stay on the claim and keep improving until you get back with the family. You will miss the presence of Emily on your arrival at home, but I hope Mr. Floed will prove to be a good man and kind husband. Still I think they got the wedding up right quick. The rumor is that Gov. Gaines is going to send his family back to old Kentucky where I hope he will soon follow, as I think his services can easily be dispensed with.
    I am very glad to hear of our triumph in Kentucky, particularly in the Ashland district. Though Indiana has done well, yet I think they might have elected Lockhart. You will have learned ere this of our triumph in California, and I can assure you that Oregon recd. the news with three cheers. California in spite of all the wireworking and votes bought is Democratic. Poor Neely Johnson, I am afraid, will not get to Congress as easily as he may imagine. We are still working off old debts by degrees. My health is tolerable fair. Give my respects to all friends, Mother and the family in particular, and tell me whether things look natural or not. I will write by next mail to Washington. Write me.
Your obt. son and friend
    N. H. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Genl. Joseph Lane
    Dr. Sir
        We have the pleasure to renew to you our congratulations upon your safe arrival to the bosom of your family after an absence of over three years. We are happy to greet you as our friend and fellow citizen, and hope you will do us the honor of meeting us and your numerous friends & partake of a public dinner to be served up upon the line of the Evansville & Illinois Railroad two miles north of the city on the 1st day of Novr. A.D. 1851 with consideration of the highest regard.
    Evansville October 20th A.D. 51--we have the honor to be
    James Lockhart John Mitchell
George B. Walker R. W. Dunbar
Wm. H. Walker John S. Terry
John T. Walker Geo. H. Todd
James T. Walker W. R. Greathouse
Cyrus K. Drew Ben Stinson
Simeon Long Ira P. Granger
N. J. James Leroy Calvert
M. J. Bray Saml. McDonald
Isaac Casselberry C. M. Griffith
Richard Raleigh John M. App
James P. Byrne A. Liter
Walter Raleigh Peter Burk
John Henson Moses Ross
Benj. Hume John Cupples
W. C. Saunders Isaac Hutchinson
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Evansville Indiana
    October the 20th 1851
Mrs. M. L. Byba
    Dear Madam
        Your son, John Anderson, handed me ($502) five hundred and two dollars in Oregon to be delivered to you at Memphis. On arriving at Memphis I went to your residence where he expected I would find you, but you were not there. Your tenant who I found in your house promised to write you and let you know that I had that amount of money for you, with the request that you would write me at Evansville and direct me where to send the same, to you. Up to this time I have heard nothing from you. Please write me as soon as possible where to send the money, which shall be subject to your order at a moment's notice.
With great respect madam
    I am your obt. servt.
        Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Island Mills O.T.
    Octr. 21st 1851
Dear Father
    Since my last nothing of interest has transpired. We have our new bridge so far completed that we can run the car over it. When it is roofed, weatherboarded and painted it will be one of the best improvements in Oregon. In the last ten days we have paid off the Ralston & Joe Meek debts, except a very small balance. I am very glad to learn through the Statesman that you arrived safely at "Havana" in good health and hope that the balance of your passage was attended with equal good fortune and health. We keep the flour mill running from 12 o'clock Sunday night until the same hour on Saturday night. We are not running the sawmill, nor will we until the rain commences sufficiently to raise the river. Flour is ready sale at $5 per hundred. Lumber is dull at $25 per M.
    Our island [Abernethy Island] has not been surveyed by Mr. Preston, and from all that we can learn the old survey only included about 2 acres, running no farther up the river than to the canyon at the upper corner or side of Thompson's house and there across to the channel at the upper side of the rack heap, leaving all that portion above entirely out, and we are beginning to feel a little anxiety about it. Holbrook and Preston have both been trying to find out all they can in reference to the Island, and Preston seems anxious to give us all that he can. Holbrook leaves for New York in November and will be able to give you more information than I can. I would like if you would suggest some mode by which we can hold it all. If it has to be done by occupancy we must go to work and build a breakwater in order to make a house stand or to protect the house, and if that has to be done the upper part will I suppose have to be surveyed separate and recorded.
    A Mr. Palmer, brother to Lieut. Palmer, came in yesterday from the Umpqua. He saw Joe, says he is well and hard at work on the claim. Mr. Thompson has been sorely afflicted with ulcerated sore throat but is nearly or quite sound again. Bush, as you will discover, keeps hitting away at the Whig officers here in power. He has the whole band (Dart and Hamilton excepted) down on him. We have had ten days of lovely weather. I suppose by the time this gets to you you will have entered on your laborious duties at the U.S. capital. I am frequently asked if you intend to bring your family to Oregon, and I answer by saying if you live. I will write often to the family. I wish you would have Mitchell to keep my babes at school.
    We think some of making an addition to the flour mill and putting in another run of burrs, that is, if we find we are not able to build a new mill. I hope in one more year to find ourselves out of debt and with some means at hand. Write to me if you please.
Your obt. son
    N. H. Lane
Genl. Jos. Lane
   

P.S. I weigh ten pounds more than when you left.
N.
   
    Mrs. Thurston will write to you to solicit your aid in procuring her the books and documents lying in the Linn City P.O. Moore refused to give them up unless she will pay the postage. I hope you will render her all the aid you can, as I certainly consider that Jim Moore is the most contemptible of all pups.
    Dr. McLoughlin leaves in Nov. for Washington to endeavor to get back to himself the Oregon City claim, and I sincerely hope he will fail.
N.H.L.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




New Harmony, Ind.
    Oct. 28, 1851
My dear Lane,
    Having been called from home by business, which took me to Terre Haute, Bloomington & Indianapolis, a few days after your return--a trip from which I returned but a few days since--I have had no opportunity to run over to Newburgh, as I desired, to see you.
    And now, on my return, I find so much business here compelling my attention that, in order to attend the meeting of the 12th Novr. at Indianapolis, I shall have to forgo the pleasure of seeing you & our Evansville friends on the 1st.
    I write to inquire how & when you propose to start for Indianapolis. If, as I suppose you go by the river, via Madison, please inform me what day you propose to start, whether from Newburgh or from Evansville, &, if you know it, by what boat. I am very desirous to make one of the party, so that I can make up for lost time & have a long talk with you over matters & things in general.
    Cannot you make up a party to start from Evansville? I wish you would, & then I shd. be sure to make one of it.
Ever, my dear Lane
    Faithfully yr. obdt.
        Robert Dale Owen
The Hon.
    Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Dear Genl
    For the first time since I parted with you at San Francisco I embrace an opportunity of writing to you. I assure you I have seen sights since we parted; I took passage on the Sea Gull and arrived at home on the 12th of August, and on the 15th again set out for Port Orford after having expended all my money for horses and outfit. As I was taken into the Port Orford Company upon condition that I should furnish four horses with their packs complete and return to Port Orford by the then returning Sea Gull and go myself to superintend and make as practicable a road from Port Orford to the interior [as possible]; in consideration I was to receive one-eighth of [the] entire enterprise.
    Accordingly I embarked on the 15th August from Portland and on the 21 took up my march from Port Orford with 18 men. [For] the result of my expedition see Oregon Statesman October 7th, enclosed.
    But I will enter more particulars into my sufferings as I can do so without it appearing egotistical, as my report was intended for publication and this is not. On the morning of the 14th Sept about ten o'clock myself and some of my men (for 9 had abandoned me two weeks before) were descending the Coquille River within 2 miles of its mouth on latitude 43°10' longitude 124°8' we came near the shore to try and get something to eat, for we had been without provisions for several days and were very weak and hungry. When within a few yards of the shore the edge of our canoe was seized by Indians who were in their canoes and near the shore and we were dragged near the shore; however, no manifestations of hostility were yet made, yet there was a great number of canoes & Indians in them also some 200 on the bank. We made signs and tried to get some provisions, but could not get any. We then tried to push off, but the Indians held onto our canoe. From the great number and our peculiar position we were anxious to get away without an attack [illegible]; as we would push off they would hold onto our canoe; finally they made a rush. Not less than fifty of them rushed upon us, sank our canoe and seized our arms before we could raise our guns to our [illegible], our arms was instantly taken from us and the most murderous attack made with clubs and knives. I was struck and hardly able to sit up in the canoe, but as I rushed to the shore was stabbed and knocked down by 2 blows, one on the breast, the other on the back, and suppose I was thrown into the river for dead or to be drowned if not dead. The first thing I remember I was some 20 or 30 feet from the shore in swimming water and was helped by a young Indian lad about 15 years old to get into a small canoe. The boy then ran to the other end of the canoe and assisted a Mr. Brush to get in the same canoe. He then jumped overboard and Brush and myself paddled the canoe to the opposite bank. When we got there, neither of us able to stand, we rolled out and crawled a few yards, pulled off our clothes and crawled up the bank. During the whole time there was the most dismal screams, the sound of strokes from clubs that it is possible to imagine, yet none of the Indians followed us. We continued our course by the sun, keeping in the thick chaparral all night, then went to the beach, traveled all night and the next day, and on the 16th arrived at Port Orford in so feeble a state there it required two Indians (as we had met with some friendly Indians on Monday night) to assist us to walk. It has been ascertained that three others of my party made their escape and went north to Umpqua. Some friendly Indians sent their squaws and found five dead bodies and buried them. Thus ended my first expedition. In a short time I am going to start upon a second overland expedition and [I] pray god that I shall have better luck. Genl Hitchcock has established a military post at Port Orford and ordered troops there. It is a good location, and I hope that he will continue it. When I arrived there on the 16th Sept. Lieut Wyman of the artillery was then building winter quarters. Since my defeat he ordered 150 men, part of the same troop that I went to California with last summer, back to Port Orford. They are under the command of Col Casey. If you can do us any good, do it.
    Political matters are as you left them. I think you are gaining popularity as far as I can learn.
    I want you to write to Capt Tichenor (his name is William Tichenor) and give me as favorable a recommend as you can, also to T. Butler King and Judge Pratt; those men are all my friends, but I wish them to know that I have other friends. King is popular with the army, also in California, yet he is a Whig, and it might be of service to me.
    You will see from the papers that my prospects are in the ascendancy, and by the help of God I will keep it there, for I will not drink or gamble.
    A. Holbrook goes to Washington; you must watch & pray he is a Whig.
    You ought to write letters to the Oregonian, also to the Oregon Times.
   
I have got a quiver of arrows & bow that I got from those damnable Rogue River Indians that I am going to send you by [illegible] express or by Holbrook. I want you to exhibit them on all occasions and tell how you got them, who from, how I got them, who from, and how you have seen me and where.
    Now I will say that we are all in better health just at this time than ever you saw us. I am getting not only fat but corpulent. Mrs. T'Vault is fleshy to corpulent upon my honor. You would be astonished.
    In [omission] I hope you & your good family are all well.
                        I remain your old friend
                            W. G. T'Vault
                                Oregon City Nov 1 1851
This letter was misread as being from 1857 and can be found on the second microfilm reel of the Jo Lane Papers.



Oregon City O.T.
    Nov. 7th 1851
Dear Father
    Since my last Mr. Preston has discovered that the survey does go above the rack heap some distance, say 12½ rods, making about as much above the rack heap as below it, so you see we are on the safe side. I have no news nor no time to write. Business is only tolerable good; we are crowded to overflowing with custom work, but unfortunately for us it don't pay. Capt. Hilborn has just come down from the Umpqua and says Joe is getting along very well, making improvements and some little money. We have had some very fine weather, but it is now raining. Waldo, your old friend, wants you to examine the patent of a planing machine, invented at Albany, New York, and ascertain the price &c. &c. And also Mrs. Husted wishes you to write her what you done with some papers she placed in your hands & if you have lost them she wishes you to bear in mind the purport of the papers as your evidence may be required &c. &c.
Your obt. son
    N. H. Lane
Jos. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Oregon City O.T.
    Novr 15th 1851
Hon Joseph Lane
        Sir
    Some time since I wrote you on the subject of my claims against the Indian agency. I am apprehensive that that letter has miscarried. I therefore presume upon your patience to make a brief statement of this matter and solicit your influence to secure me as speedily as convenient the amount of my claims.
    The day after the ratification of a treaty of peace with the Rogue River Indians Mr. Spalding the acting agent resolved to leave a party of men under me to see that the terms of the treaty were observed until he could confer with the superintendent Dr. Dart at Oregon City and return to the tribe and make a purchase of their lands. He left Rogue River on the 15th day of July and arrived at Oregon City on the 22nd of the same month. He wrote me on the 28th of July stating that Dr. Dart had resolved to meet the Indians at some convenient point in their country and purchase their lands and requested me to retain the men under me and give the Indians notice that such was the intention of the superintendent and that I would convene the Indians at such convenient point on the 15th day of September. I proceeded to obey these orders by going through the whole tribe from the Kenyon on the Umpqua to the Table Rock. After I had finished this understanding with the Indians, Dr. Dart sent Mr. Bayley to the Rogue River country with a letter authorizing him, Mr. Bayley, to take the Indians to Port Orford as per Mr. Bayley. Mr. Spalding wrote me a letter stating that he was sorry that Dr. Dart had changed his purpose of meeting the Indians on the 15th of September and requested me to dismiss the men under me. On the day after the receipt of this letter I started for Oregon City and arrived there in time to see Dr. Dart before he left for Port Orford. I told him the impossibility of getting the Indians to go to Port Orford &c. He then resolved to meet the Indians in the course of six weeks in their country and trade with them for their lands &c. He proceeded to Port Orford and returned, and finally declined trading with the Indians this season at all, but sent out Judge Skinner, the agent for that district with a few presents, &c. &c. Mr. Dart refused at the time of my return to pay me, and still refuses to do [so] as he says until he can get advices from Congress. The reason he assigns for not paying me and my party is that he did not approve the steps taken by Mr. Spalding in leaving a party in the country--besides, he had not approved the treaty of peace made with the Indians by Govr. Gaines.
    I have no disposition to impugn what the Dr. states, but really there is such a plain discrepancy in his sayings and doings I cannot act otherwise than to notice it.
    In the first place he instructs Mr. Spalding to go to the Rogue River country and at whatever cost to remove from among the Indians any and all persons who have killed innocent Indians, & to adopt the most advisable steps to produce
harmony &c. &c. Mr. Spalding done so. The Dr. told me he did not authorize the steps taken by Mr. Spalding in leaving the party under me in that country. As I before stated, Mr. Spalding returned from Rogue River to Oregon City on the 22nd July and reported what had been done. Mr. Spalding wrote me from Oregon City on the 28th July stating the Dr. would meet the Indians on the 15th Sept. and for me to continue the men in the service &c. &c. This does not look like the Dr. did not approve what was done by Mr. Spalding. He certainly did not disapprove it, or the party would have been dismissed at once instead of keeping me from July until September, performing the most hazardous hardships--and using my own and some of my party's money in furthering the wishes of the agent.
    You were present in the country at the time the treaty was about to be made. You are aware [of] the necessity of the treaty of peace, of which it will be useless for me to speak.
    As for what I have done I can refer you to Govr. Gaines, Mr. Spalding and even to Dr. Dart himself. I am sorry I have to resort to this humiliating method of importuning any person of power to arrive at a well-earned and established right. 
    I left my family and home for the purpose of mining on Rogue River or Shasta. I was in the Rogue River Valley at the time the treaty was making, and was under Govr. Gaines for that purpose. After this Mr. Spalding prevailed upon me to remain with the party for the purposes before stated. I abandoned my mining purpose, disposed of my tools, provisions &c. at a sacrifice and used my (all I had) money in providing for the occasional wants of the party and in paying some of the discharged men.
    I am now at home without a dollar in pocket, and without any visible method of soon getting any. I certainly claim that this abuse on the part of Dr. Dart is entirely unwarranted and without a parallel.
    The money due me and my party should be paid, and if Dr. Dart has forfeited his bonds to government it is a matter between himself and government.
    I think it quite a low and very mean subterfuge in Dr. D. to keep the important, hazardous and assiduously industrious services of myself and comrades in the Rogue River country, among a tribe of entirely savage people (and these too just out of a destructive war with our people) as we [are] waiting for our hard-earned pennies until he can receive advices from the home department, dodging the consequences of a responsibility that he might incur if he paid the amount at once, when in fact the labor we were performing was of the most pressing importance to the government, and the mining community on the one hand, and for Christianity's sake, for the bettering and improving the condition of this untaught and entirely ignorant people on the other. True, it was his duty to have done this in person but if calls from other neighboring tribes rendered it impossible at that time, and if the ends were accomplished by me, that could only have been done by himself what is the difference?
    I will follow the theme no farther, and regret I have troubled you to such length on this subject--you will pardon me.
    Allow me the honor of hearing from you at your earliest convenience
        And believe me
            Most respectfully yours
                C. M. Walker


Oregon  City Nov. 20 1851      
Sir
    I received a day or two ago the enclosed letter from Capt. C. M. Walker to yourself requesting me after inspection to forward it to you. I have examined the letter carefully and state without hesitation that the facts as stated by him so far as they came within my knowledge are strictly true, with his conclusions I of course having nothing to say.
    Finding myself in the very heart of the enemy's country with only ten men, Major Kearny having just left with some thirty women and children captured from there, I employed Capt. Walker and four others at a cost much below the ordinary price as you will know (that is three dollars a day for man, horse and equipments) and sent three of my party to the Umpqua Valley to procure an interpreter who returned on the same day you arrived at my camp with the prisoners.
    I then thought it necessary, in which you concurred, to increase my force, which I did to some twenty-four-five, amongst whom was your son Jo. These men were all under the management of Capt. Walker, whose wages was fixed at four dollars a day, as he had much labor to perform and a good deal of responsibility. I well remember your telling me that I could have not have procured a more suitable person to perform the important and delicate duties then on hand. I found him sensible, decent, vigilant, and without him or some such person I believe I could not have accomplished the pacification which we all then had so much at heart.
    Two days after you left and the day before the pacification was concluded, but after the terms were agreed upon, Mr. Spalding, who had but just recovered from a long spell of sickness, arrived at my camp with written instructions as he stated from the superintendent, to bring to justice at "no matter what cost," all persons accused of wantonly killing Indians. He was present at the signing of the treaty, is a witness to it, and highly approved all that was done.
    Having concluded all I thought I had a right to do and written to Dr. Dart by yourself advising him of what was doing and urging him to come up and attend to this business who whom it properly belonged, I dismissed my men, paid them off and immediately left for home.
    Mr. Spalding, feeling himself fully authorized by the written instructions of Dr. Dart to spare no expense in bringing to justice murderers of unoffending Indians, and also feeling that the continuance of peace depended upon a faithful execution of the agreement by which hostilities had just been terminated, employed Capt. Walker and some few others to enable him to carry out his instructions and to protect the very valuable trade which you are well aware was then being carried on through the country. I will here add that I most solemnly believe that to Capt. Walker's prudent management, and to his arduous and hazardous labor, this territory is justly indebted for the preservation of peace.
    Mr. Spalding conferred with me as to what course he should pursue and I did hesitate, knowing all the circumstances as I did, to advise to employ Walker and his party, and I have not a doubt it was the cause of saving many lives and tens of thousands of dollars to the government. Mr. Spalding returned to Oregon City and arrived a day or two after I did. He assured me that he fully informed Dr. Dart of all that was done and also that he had promised to return to Rogue River in two weeks.
    I informed Dart myself on the 23 July of all that was done which he professed [illegible--a few words' worth of paper chewed away] him to allow Spalding to keep his promise with the Indians to return in two weeks. He informed me that he had intended to go to Rogue River but that he had altered his plans, that he had then made arrangements to meet the Clatsop Indians and that he must have Mr. Spalding's services, and that he would, or had postponed this meeting which had been appointed by Spalding with the Rogue River Indians until the middle of Sept. and that they had been so informed. Before the arrival of that day the Dr. determined to go to Port Orford as stated by Mr. Walker.
    I also read to Dr. Dart on the day of its date my letter of July 25th to Major Hathaway, in which I say, after urging him to send troops to R. River, that the Indian agent had employed a number of men at a high expense awaiting his arrival.
    This letter you will find in my report to the Secretary of War. All this time no objection was made to my knowledge, and the first intimation I had to the contrary was received from Mr. Spalding or Capt. Walker early in September immediately after his recall. These are the facts to the best of my recollection, and I consider it but sheer justice that Walker and his comrades should be promptly paid the amount contracted to be paid by the government agent.
    Indeed, whether Spalding had or had not the authority to do what he did, his contract should nevertheless be complied with, and if he exceeded his [illegible--one word chewed away] it should be a question between him and the govt. and not with an individual.
    But the letter of Dr. Dart to Spalding directing him to spare no expense in bringing to justice certain respective offenders I consider ample authority to do all he did, and that he used it most beneficially and economically for the public good.
    You are at liberty to show this to Dr. Dart if you think proper, and also to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
    I am sir
        Very respectfully
            Your obt. servant
                John P. Gaines



Shasta Butte City, Cal.
            Dec. 1st, 1851
To the Honbl. Gen. Lane
    Sir, as our acquaintance is but slight you will naturally be somewhat surprised at my intruding myself upon your notice and time, and it is with extreme diffidence that I address you yet. Gen. Lane will pardon the assurance of a soldier. I have a favor to ask or I should not this intrude, therefore I crave your patience while I relate our grievance. You doubtless recollect the time of my departure from Redding's Diggins for Scotts River, as I applied to you for information relative to the nature of this region and the best route to travel. I think it was one year ago last August I came on to Scotts River and have been here since. We located in Scotts Valley and built the first house ever raised in the valley. There were several interested in the rancho because it was deemed unsafe for
less to reside in the valley. Myself and B. E. Simmons bought out the rest and paid them in dust, provisions and labor rated very high and we had but few animals. But all there was we had therefore spent our money and time anticipating that our claim would be valuable in time. That time has arrived. Claims have been sold at six and twelve thousand dollars the past summer. Col. McKee, however, U.S. Indian agent, arrived here this fall and has designated the most valuable portion of Scotts Valley as an Indian reserve, i.e., the lower end of the valley and covers many valuable claims and improvements. Most of the occupants of these claims will apply through the Com. of Indian Affairs at Washington for damages. I have written out a statement of the facts and an application and forwarded it by Col. McKee to the Com. at Washington. Therefore I would most respectfully solicit your attention and influence in our favor. We are the first and most unfortunate settlers of Scotts Valley.
    I am sir very respectfully your
        Obedient Servant
            S. R. Lewis
To the Hon. Gen. Lane


Oregon Territory Marion County December the 1st 1851
    Honorable sir, I take the liberty of writing a few lines to you, believing it to be my duty to do so, and also a privilege that I esteem as a high one to address you as one of the members of our great national council and make known to you some of my own particular requisites as well as the requests [of] a great many others of your old friends. I will just say to you that I have been one of many that emigrated from Illinois to Oregon the past season and I write you this to state facts of things that has taken place with emigrants and the Indians. There has been a great deal of harm been done on the last season by the Snake Nation. I have a knowledge of about forty-two persons that has been murdered by these Indians between the Rocky Mountains and the Blue Mountains. This is a distance of about seven hundred miles. Besides this there has been nine others wounded. There has been not less than two hundred mares stolen from emigrants in the Snake Nation and when there was a small train found by the Indians traveling a little remote from long trains that Indians would [make] no bones to commence a bloody house on them in broad daylight and if they could succeed they would drive their stock off from them in broad daylight. There is another class of men mixed in with these Indians that generally is thought to be the leaders of these murdering bands; that is the Hudson Bay Company men; they are generally is Canadian French. They are mixed all through the Snake Nation and is very bold to argue with the whites that they are transgressors on these Indians' rights, that the Indians has never been treated with by the government of the United States for the right of way through their country and if emigrants choose to come through the Indians' country they must take Indian fare, and now, sir, these are facts that I know to exist. These are things that is known to hundreds and there appears to be nothing adoing by the Governor of this Territory on the subject. I know not he has made complaint to Congress, but believing it to be my duty to report these things to some member of Congress I have written these things to you in order that they might be looked into and would ask [you] to enlist your talent and your eloquence in behalf of innocent American blood that has been spilled and for the safety of emigrants hereafter.
    Oregon is one of the finest countries in the world, but it is poorly served for politicians. The Governor appears to be rather slow and is generally disliked by the citizens. He talks of resigning and if he would do so all of the people would say Amen, that is, all that is in Oregon. There is need of some more energetic men to be appointed as Indian agents for the south and west part of Oregon. These scribbling lines in haste.
Yours with due respect
    Robert Alexander
To
    Richard Yates Esqr.

Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Washington City, December 12, 1851.
To his excellency the President of the United States:
    SIR: A sense of duty prompts me to call your early attention to the peculiar condition of things in Oregon. I have been a citizen of that Territory for nearly three years, have traveled the settled portion of it all over, had much to do with the Indians, and know them, perhaps, as well as any other man, and understand the wants of the American citizens there, and can say to you that for their protection, and for the protection of others emigrating there, troops to be garrisoned on the great road from St. Joseph, via Fort Hall, to the Dalles of the Columbia, and also on the road from Oregon to California, are absolutely indispensable for the protection of life and property. I know that I need but call your attention to the condition of things there, and present the facts within my knowledge, to secure your aid and prompt action in the premises. The suffering this season for the want of troops to protect emigrants and others en route to Oregon, and from Oregon to California, has been terrible, and certainly this government ought, and will I have no doubt afford protection to her citizens in a country so remote and exposed as are all persons traveling either on the emigrant road to Oregon, or on the road from Oregon to California. There are but these two roads south of the Columbia on which troubles are to be apprehended. The shape of the country and its stupendous mountains are insurmountable barriers to the location of roads of importance. A garrison of two or three companies of horse--one infantry, if a mounted force cannot be had--on each of these roads, at the Grand Ronde, for instance, on the emigrant or northern road, and in the Rogue River Valley, on the California or southern road, should be established. The moral influence that the establishment of the posts would produce upon the minds of the Indians would do much towards keeping peace with them, and afford the protection to American citizens that they are so justly entitled to.
    It may be well here to mention that the road from Oregon to California forks in the Rogue River Valley--the main road--passes south of the great Shasta mountain to the source of the Sacramento, thence down that river to its great valley, and to Sacramento city; the north branch passes by Klamath Lake to Fort Hall. A small party of emigrants have gone that route this season and got in safely. This route was opened by Jesse Applegate, Scott and others in the year 1846, for the purpose of affording to emigrants a pass into the southern portion of Oregon, but such was the suffering of the first emigrants on this route that it has been but little traveled since, but will, I have no doubt, be much traveled if a garrison should be established in Rogue River valley, as above suggested.
    I have been thus explicit in order that you may understand the condition and wants of the country which I have the honor to represent, with the full belief that you will take such steps as may be necessary to give protection to the citizens there, and emigrants and others traveling to and from Oregon.
    Herewith I enclose two communications from Oregon for your perusal, which you will please return to me. One of the writers I am well acquainted with (Mr. Applegate, one of the early settlers of Oregon). He has done much to bring the country into requisition by exploring, opening roads &c. &c.--a sensible, reliable man. With Mr. Simons I have no acquaintance, but have no doubt of the truth of his narrative.
    With great respect, I am, sir, your obedient servant,
JOSEPH LANE.
The Daily Union, Washington, D.C., February 6, 1852, page 1  The speech can also be found on pages 507-508 of the Congressional Globe for the first session of the 32nd Congress.



Island Mills O.T.
    Dec. 18th 1851
Dear Father
    I have recd. two dollars and placed it to your credit on our books. The money is to pay subscription for the New York Weekly Tribune, to be sent to Gabriel Walling Esqr. at Oregon City and also the Whig Almanac from the Tribune office. He desires also that you would ascertain when his subscription for the above-named documents is up. If you will take as much trouble to attend to this matter you will both oblige him and me. Our legislature it is feared will do no good this session. The greater portion of the members are now in session at Salem, and the remaining at Oregon City. Judges Nelson & Strong held the supreme court at Oregon City and decided that they were holding court at the seat of government, and Judge Pratt went to Salem, but I have not seen any decision from him.
    Aside from the little excitement that the splitting of the legislature has caused, the country and business generally is dull. I recd. your letters of the 22nd & 28th September and am very proud to learn that you arrived at the old homestead in good health and to learn that you found the family in good health & am much obliged for your visit to my children.
    Judge Skinner is out on Rogue River, and I am afraid I will not be able to see him soon in order to take up your notes, though I will write him by the first opportunity and ascertain when I can get them, and where they are. I am very glad to know that you effected a settlement with Judge Bryant.
    I am driving the mills all I can, but the old debts have retarded me greatly in getting along. We are still manufacturing the best flour made in the Territory, and sawing some lumber. We have had considerable rain and some tolerable high water, but nothing to do any damage. The weather for the past few days has been delightful, the days clear and pleasant with frosty nights. I am becoming more and more attached to Oregon every day and am only afraid that by the time you get the family out here I will be so much in love with the country that I won't want to leave.
    Your old friend Horace Baker says that he sent by you for two copies of the Washington Union and is afraid that you will forget to have them sent to him. Please remember it, and I will make him pay the subscription to me and place it to your credit. The people, or some of them, are very anxious to know what you are going to do for the Territory. I tell them you will do all in your power for the general good of the Territory, and that if they will only give time that everything you do will come to light.
    Mr. Thompson has had a great deal of sickness in his family, and the doctors have advised him to move his family off of the Island in order to avoid the dampness caused by the Falls. Your boy John came very near dying, but is now well. I had Doctor Barclay to attend on him. He as well as myself and others thought there was no hopes for him. His disease was similar to erysipelas.
    Friend Bush has taken his small press to Salem to do the legislative printing, and he is about getting up a session paper to be called the Vox Populi. I have heard nothing from Joe for some time, but have reason to believe that he will stick to the claim and do all he can in the way of improving it. Try and persuade all the good citizens you can to move to Oregon when you come. Mr. and Mrs. Harrison send their compliments to you, as do Mrs. T'Vault and family and many others of your good friends.
Your obt. son and friend
    N. H. Lane
Genl. Jos. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Letter from General Lane.
Washington, Dec. 24, '51.        
    Dear Bush:--About 7 o'clock this morning the Capitol was discovered to be on fire. My boarding house is on the hill, and not far from the Capitol. Consequently I ran quick to learn the extent of the fire, condition of things, &c. and to assist if possible in arresting the flames. I found the police stationed in and about the building, and everything in the greatest confusion--bells tolling, people collecting, engines hurrying to the scene of trouble, and the library, or western end of the building, all in flames. The woodwork in that portion is all destroyed together with the library, many valuable paintings, statues &c. Considerable damage was also done to the walls and columns of the building. The halls of the two Houses are untouched. Loss and damage, including value of books destroyed, some 5 or $600,000. It will not interfere with the sittings of Congress.
JO LANE.       
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, February 17, 1852, page 2



General Land Office
    December 27th 1851
Sir,
    Your communication to the Honble. Secretary of the Interior has been referred to this office, in which you inquire "whether there is anything on file in the Department" in "reference to the ownership of what is known as Abernethy's Island, Oregon Territory," and if so desiring to be furnished with copies of the papers on the subject.
    I have therefore the honor to state that there are on file here in the matter certain papers, which were referred to this office from the Department of the Interior, of which, pursuant to your request, I herewith transmit copies, viz.
    1st. of a commission dated the 15th of July last, at Oregon City, and from John McLoughlin, and of certain papers therein referred to, viz.
    2nd. Copy from a transcript of a survey by Jesse Applegate, dated December 16th 1843, which is called "John McLoughlin's survey of 640 acres" on the Willamette River.
    3rd. Copy of a transcript of a declaration of intention of John McLoughlin to become a citizen.
With great respect
    Your obt. servt.
        J. Butterfield
            Commissioner
The Honble.
    Jesse D. Bright
        Senate U. States
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library


CIRCULAR OF HON. JOS. LANE,
DELEGATE FROM OREGON.
In Reference to the Settlement, Soil, and Climate of Oregon Territory.
    Washington City, Jan. 1, 1852.   
    The great number of letters I am constantly receiving, making inquiries in reference to the Territory of Oregon, has induced me to embody in the form of a circular such information as is usually desired, that I may thus be enabled to furnish it more promptly and more in detail than a due attention to my other public duties would allow me were I to endeavor to give a written answer to each. I hope this course will not be considered discourteous to my correspondents, for in pursuing it, I will more effectually and satisfactorily serve them, which is my chief desire.
    Oregon is a mountainous country, interspersed with many extensive, rich and beautiful valleys, watered by cool, pure streams, having their sources among its snow-clad mountains. It is exceedingly healthy--no country is more so. The atmosphere is pure, and the climate delightful, especially during the summer. From April to November there is but little rain, but a cool, gentle breeze flows almost perpetually from the north. The winters are rainy, but mild, for, during the season, warm south winds constantly prevail.
    The country is well watered, and the soil very fertile and well adapted to the growth of all the small grains, grasses, potatoes and other culinary vegetables--all yielding most abundantly, except Indian corn, which is not regarded as a successful crop. Many of the hills and mountains are covered with inexhaustible forests of fine timber, generally fir and cedar. Those forests frequently skirt the valleys and streams.
    As is well known, the Columbia is the only great river on the Pacific Slope, and stretches from the sea coast to the Rocky Mountains. From its mouth to the Cascades, a distance of about one hundred and fifty miles, there is an uninterrupted navigation for vessels of the largest size. The Willamette empties into the Columbia about ninety miles from its mouth. This river is also navigable for the largest vessels to Portland, fifteen miles from its mouth, and many have ascended as high as Milwaukie, seven miles further.
    At the risk of some little repetition, it may not be deemed improper or unnecessary to give a more detailed and minute description of the valley of this and some of the other streams of Oregon.
    The Willamette Valley is bounded by the Coast Mountains on the west, and the Cascade Range on the east. The soil is excellent, and is not surpassed, if equaled, by any portion of the continent in its adaptation to the growth of wheat, rye and oats. Potatoes are produced in great abundance, and are of a superior quality, while wheat is invariably a certain crop, subject to none of the diseases and uncertainties peculiar to it in the States; it matures slowly, hence the grain is always full and plump, and the straw unusually solid and elastic, and not subject to fall. In consequence of the cool, dry summers, and the entire absence of rain during the harvest season, the farmer is enabled to gather in the grain without waste.
    This valley is about one hundred and fifty miles in length, and thirty-five in breadth, and is sparsely settled throughout its whole extent. Many fine locations are yet unoccupied, which will richly repay the labor of the thrifty husbandman. Natural meadows, as yet untouched by the hand of cultivation, afford abundant and rich pasturage for immense herds of cattle. The valley is mostly prairie, skirted by beautiful groves of timber, while through its center runs the Willamette River.
    The Umpqua Valley is distant from the Willamette about twelve miles, and is separated from it by the Calapooia Mountain. It is about ninety miles in length, and varies from five to thirty-five miles in width. It is made up of a succession of hills and dales, furnishes but little timber, yet abounds in a natural luxuriant growth of the richest grass.
    North and South Umpqua rivers run through this valley, and form a junction about forty miles from the bay of the same name. The entrance to this bay is found to be practicable, as many ships and steamers have crossed the bar at its mouth, finding from three to three and a half fathoms of water upon it, without the aid of pilots, buoys or lighthouses. A few slight accidents, however, have occurred for the want of such improvements. A port of entry has been established here, and appropriations have been made for a lighthouse and fog signals.
    This bay is destined to be an important point to the southern portion of Oregon; here will be the outlet for the produce of the Umpqua Valley, and, consequently, here will be its commercial city. Many pack trains are already employed in the transportation of goods and provisions from this point to the "gold diggin's" on Rogue, Shasta and Scott rivers.
    Rogue River Valley, which takes its name from the river that passes through it, is about seventy miles by the main traveled route from Umpqua. The valley is well watered by never-failing streams; the soil is generally good, and it is skirted and interspersed with groves of fine timber. As it borders upon a rich gold region it must eventually become densely populated. As yet, however, it contains no white settlement, but is occupied by the Rogue River Indians, who have rendered it the seat of much trouble and suffering from their depredations.
    There is no portion of the Territory, and indeed, I may almost add of the world, better adapted to grazing than this valley. In extent it is about fifty by thirty miles. Surrounded by mountains, the eye seldom rests upon a more beautiful, picturesque and romantic spot. It extends to within a few miles of the boundary between Oregon and California. These valleys all lie west of the Cascade Mountains and south of the Columbia.
    There are also many small valleys, rich and fertile, in this part of the Territory, affording good inducements to settlers, and which no doubt will be speedily occupied so soon as suitable protection can be extended over them by the government.
    A very interesting portion of Oregon lies north of the Columbia, and is being rapidly settled. The Cowlitz, which rises in the Cascade Mountains, north of the Columbia, runs through a large tract of fine, arable land, entering the Columbia some forty or fifty miles from its mouth.
    A French settlement of many years growth commences near this river, about thirty miles from its mouth, and now embraces some large and valuable farms. Americans also have, within the last six years, settled between it and the Chehalis, and are doing well. The country is level and fertile, and beautifully interspersed with prairies and timber.
    The valley of the Chehalis is also fertile, and well adapted to cultivation. Between it and Puget Sound the country is level and well timbered, with occasional small prairies. This sound is one of the safest and best harbors in the world. It affords fine ship navigation to an important portion of the Territory. Surrounded by a large district of country, rich in soil, with immense forests of the finest timber in the world, and combining many advantages, agricultural and commercial, it is destined to be, at no distant day, one of the most important points on the Pacific coast. A low pass in the Cascade Mountains offers a route for a good road from the Sound to Fort Walla Walla, on the Columbia. Such a road would be important for military purposes, and would also be a great saving of distance and time to emigrants going from the Cowlitz and Chehalis rivers, Puget Sound, or to any other point north of the Columbia. At present emigrants are compelled to take the road across the Cascade Mountains, south of the Columbia, to Oregon City, from whence it is as far, by a road almost impassable, to Puget Sound as it would be from Walla Walla by the road suggested.
    There are, also, east of the Cascade Range, north and south of the Columbia, now in possession of the Indians, large districts of country finely adapted to grazing, with occasional good tracts of farming land, which will, no doubt, ere long be occupied by the whites.
    Oregon City is situated at the Great Falls of the Willamette. Steamboats run daily from this place to Portland, and those of a small class also run daily up the river, above the Falls, from thirty to fifty miles, and in some instances, recently, as I am informed, they have even gone up one hundred and fifty miles. A small judicious expenditure would render the river constantly navigable for such boats that distance.
    The population of Oregon, including the immigration of the last season, is probably twenty thousand. The immigration is rapidly increasing, owing not only to the natural advantages of the country, but to the liberal provisions made for actual settlers by a late law of Congress. By that law liberal donations of land are made to all who will settle upon them previous to the first day of December, 1853. To a single man one hundred and sixty acres, and to a married man three hundred and twenty--one-half in his own right and the other half to his wife in her own right, upon condition that they will live upon and cultivate it for four years.
    The population is of a substantial character, much better than is generally found in new countries. The people are enterprising, industrious, frugal and orderly. Many of the earliest settlers have large, well-cultivated farms; indeed, agriculture everywhere in the Territory may be said to be in a flourishing condition, remarkably so for a new country. California and the Sandwich Islands afford markets and good prices for all our surplus products, and will undoubtedly for years to come.
    Many of the various religious denominations have established churches in the Territory, to some one of which the majority of the settlers belong. Great interest has also been manifested by the people in the establishment of good schools, and admirably have they succeeded in their laudable efforts. The Institute at Salem, under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the Academy at Tualatin Plains, under the control of the Presbyterians, are excellent and flourishing institutions. There are also two female institutes in Oregon City. Portland, Lafayette, and other small towns have good schools. Indeed they are common in the country wherever the population will justify them. A grant of land was made by the last Congress for the endowment of a university, the site of which has been fixed by the Territorial Legislature at Marysville.
    The Indians immediately bordering on, or near the settlements, are perfectly friendly and well disposed. Settlers have nothing to fear from them. Those upon Rogue River are troublesome to those passing through their country, and will probably continue so until a garrison shall be established to overawe and keep them in subjection. This, I hope, will soon be done, for their depredations upon travelers have already caused much trouble and suffering. They are upon the great thoroughfare from Oregon to California, a fork of which leads to Fort Hall, being the road frequently traveled by emigrants from that point to Oregon.
    Emigrants the past year suffered considerably from the Snake Indians, who infest the great road west of Fort Hall, and who are scattered over a large extent of territory through which the road passes. The establishment of a garrison in their country is essentially necessary to the maintenance of peace, and the protection of the lives and property of persons passing to and from Oregon. A number of emigrants have, during the past season, been murdered by the Indians, and many of their animals and other property stolen from them. Emigrants should exercise great care and prudence in passing through this district of country, and they should remember that it is essential to their safety, upon all parts of this road, that in no case should they suffer themselves to be taken by surprise, or the least advantage had of them by the Indians, for the least carelessness or want of proper precaution often seriously endangers the safety not only of their property but their lives.
    Those who contemplate emigrating to Oregon should be ready to leave St. Joseph, on the Missouri River, with a proper outfit, by the first day of May. Ox teams are much to be preferred. Provisions for the trip, and sufficient blankets for bedding, with such tools only as are necessary to repair a wagon, should be taken. Each man should also take his gun and plenty of ammunition. The journey is a long and tedious one, and all who undertake it must expect to endure fatigue, privations and hardships. I would advise every person, or at least every company, to procure Palmer's Emigrants' Guide. It correctly lays down the fords across the streams, the camping grounds, and also the places where grass, wood and water can be found. No article not necessary for the journey should be taken, as there is great danger of overloading and breaking down the teams.
    Dry goods, groceries, furniture and farming utensils of all kinds are abundant in Oregon, and no one should think of taking such things with them. It must not, however, be supposed that no inconveniences are to be experienced by emigrants, after they arrive there. These are always incident to the settlement of new countries, especially for the first year; but they are fewer in Oregon than are usual in the settling of new territories.
JOSEPH LANE.       
Bardstown Herald, Kentucky, February 4, 1852, page 1



Oregon City O.T.
    Jany. 4th 1852
Dear Father
    I wish to say a word or two in reference to the [capital] location question. Whatever you do, don't favor Oregon City and the federal officers. They have arrayed themselves against the people and their representatives who met at Salem, and I feel confident will through their chief actor (A. Holbrook Esq.) try to lead you astray from the true principles. Some of your best Democratic friends think you have so much confidence in Mr. H. that you could be influenced by him against your own as well as the true interests of the people of the Territory. But I am satisfied that you are too old a hand in such matters to be deceived by a man belonging to the opposite party. But still I think whenever an opportunity offers to undeceive the people in reference to your standing with the Whig officers it would be well to do so.
    There is one other thing I want to urge upon you, and that is the necessity of procuring the passage of such a bill as will give the people of the Territory the power to elect all their officers, to be paid as before out of the Treasury of the United States, and again I would say for God's sake don't allow yourself to be led astray by letters or anything coming from the Whig officers.
    The river is higher now than any time since the great flood in '49 and is still rising slow, but as it has not rained any for 56 hours we don't think it can rise much more. It has done us but little damage yet, nothing in fact but carrying off some one or two hundred saw logs.
    Mr. Thompson's family is still afflicted; his little daughter Elly is now very sick with inflammatory fever. You must write to Mr. Thompson. I know he would be glad to get a letter from you.
    I have not heard from Joe for some time, but suppose he writes to you. My health is very good. I am getting along very well in the milling business, making but little in the way of cash, but paying off some debts which you know is equivalent.
    I will write you often and try to keep you posted on such matters as I think are of importance to the Territory and your own well being. Your friends send their compliments. You must not fail to send the papers to those who sent money by you to pay subscription.
    Write me as often as you can.
Your obt. son &c.
    N. H. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Island Mills O.T.
    Jany. 20th 1852
Dear Father
    This morning I recd. a letter from you dated Washington Dec. 4th / 51 and have an opportunity of answering it immediately, as the mail steamer Columbia lays over two days at Portland. In reference to the survey of the Island you may rest satisfied that I will have it attended to at the first low water and have the survey recorded per your instructions. I wrote to Judge Skinner, who is on the Rogue River, about those notes. I sent him a copy of the recpt. and Judge Bryant's order, keeping the original myself until I recd. the notes. I have not heard from Skinner yet, but think I will get some news from him ere long. I wrote to him to send me the notes by the first opportunity. No news of interest afloat in this section of country. The people's legislature at Salem will adjourn tomorrow, "sine die" I suppose. Bush has been up at Salem during the session and is expected to return this week. And as I think I said something about his having something to do with the editing of the Vox Populi
I will here place that matter right, as I have since been informed that he refused to have anything to do with the paper, but to accommodate the members let out the use of his small press and type to the gentlemen who got the paper up. We sustained a loss of $735 worth of logs by the late high water, but no damage was done to the mills except stopping them about two weeks with back water, but I have them both going now and am making some lumber and flour and a very little money. I am getting rid of old debts and hope to get them about all worked off during this year. Times are pretty hard and money not very plenty, I assure you. I have not recd. anything from Joe for some time, though I have written frequently. I don't expect him down until sometime next summer. Mr. Thompson has moved up on the hill in the house that Gov. Gaines occupied when you left. He has bought some land and concluded to try farming. His family are regaining their health. T'Vault has not been 3 weeks at home since you left. He is now up in the Umpqua pretending to look out a road to Port Orford, but I fear he will do no good neither for himself nor country.
    I cautioned you against Amory Holbrook in my last, and I again repeat it: He will bear watching. You can't imagine how odious he has made himself among the Oregonians. I hope you will do all you can for Oregon and that you may do all things right. Write me often. I will do the same.
Your obt. son
    N. H. Lane
Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Washington City, January 21st 1852
Messrs. Greenbury and James B. Martin,
    Gentlemen, Capt. Wm. J. Martin has forwarded to me a power of attorney to "collect by suit or otherwise to receive and receipt for the same" two promissory notes executed by Greenbury Martin and James B. Martin of Platte County, Missouri for the sum of five hundred and thirty-three dollars each, with ten percent interest bearing date April 3rd 1846, payable to William J. Martin three years after date. These notes as you are aware are filed in the office of the Clerk of the Circuit Court of Platte County. One of the votes is entitled to a credit of one hundred and sixty dollars, Sept. 29th 1849.
    On yesterday I recd. a letter from William informing me that he is in great need of money and requesting me to write you without delay and beg you to pay the above notes in time to forward the money by May next. This I hope you will readily do. I urge this the more for the reason that I know that William's engagements will seriously embarrass him without he can get the money due him from you. Upon the payment of the above-named notes I am authorized to execute all proper releases or conveyances necessary to discharge any mortgage or collateral security of any kind whatsoever, and to do all other things necessary to be done in the premises.
    Permit me, gentlemen, to beg you to write me immediately upon the receipt of this letter and let me know when you can discharge the debt above mentioned. I have no doubt of your ability and willingness to pay this debt. Let me know how and when I can get the money. Write me and also your member of Congress Mr. Hall if necessary to ensure the forwarding of this transaction.
    Direct to Washington City, D.C. I shall be here until the close of the session.
I am gentlemen
    Your obt. servt.
        Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Indianapolis
    Feb. 1, 1852.
My dear Lane,
    I have just received, with a great deal of satisfaction, your letter of the 23rd Jany.
    It is usually to us a matter of satisfaction & of pride when any of our predictions, made at a time when few men had faith in them, seem likely to come true. So it is, in this case. You may remember that some three years ago I wrote you a long letter to Oregon, in which I laid before you, in detail, the train of reasoning by which I arrived at the conclusion that your chance for the next nomination for the Presidency was better than that of any other man. I expressed the same opinions in a Democratic caucus of the members of the Legislature, called to nominate some candidate & who, having got through, sent for me, on the spur of the moment, to give them a talk. Many thought I was not sincere. Others than I was extravagant. I am so much accustomed & have been, all my life, to such accusations, that I said little except that time would show whether I was right or wrong.
    From that day to this, not only have I continuously heard my judgment impugned, but also my motives questioned, for the course I then took. You ask me why I had not written to you. In part, because I have been incessantly occupied, ever since the session opened. But that was not the sole, nor the chief reason: for, busy or not busy, one can always match half an hour to write to a friend. It had been so often thrown up to me that I was supporting you from selfish considerations & not because I thought you the best man, that I shrunk from obtruding either advice or assistance, especially as it seemed to me when you were here, that your own faith in the chances of success was not strong. I had received also--that I may as well confess to you--a letter from a northern Democrat, who is a warm friend to Cass & opposed to you, in which he said he knew that I had sinister motives in supporting you, that I did so against my better judgment, knowing Cass to be a much abler man &c. I wrote him back a letter that he won't forget in a hurry, about as sharp as the slip I enclose you, in reply to a recent attack of Holloway, of Wayne, on my religious views.
    But the letter nettled me a good deal more than such a piece of silly trash ought to have done. And it had a good deal to do with my delay in writing to you, until I should have a line from your hand.
    Enough of this. Of one thing, my dear Lane, you may rest assured; you may find a hundred friends who will make much louder protestations than I of desire to render service, but not one who, when the time comes, will work more earnestly or steadily in your cause.
    It will give me very great pleasure, as delegate for the state at large, to attend the Baltimore convention, & I know no one whose cooperation, in the same position, would be more efficient than Bright's. If you will write to a few leading men here, or who are likely to be here, expressing your wishes on the subject, it will doubtless ensure the nomination, at all events of myself, & I hope of Bright. The only doubt on the latter point arises from the feud existing between Bright & the Governor, a difficulty which I well know you regret as much as I do. But I think, by Bright's nomination for reelection as Governor & Bright's nomination as delegate from the state at large, hard feelings may be softened & the wound healed over. I'll do what I can do to arrange it. Let me know in whom Bright chiefly confides, of those likely to be at the convention, and I will cooperate with them to secure Bright's nomination as delegate.
    I have many old friends, former colleagues in Congress, who, I think, have faith in my sincerity & some confidence in my judgment, & whom I am likely to meet at Baltimore. With them I think I can have some influence.
    I am well satisfied that a new man will be taken. The old politicians have, every one of them, too much weight to carry, & public opinion expects a new man. If, as we suppose here, Scott is to be the Whig candidate, that will be a very strong argument for you over Douglas. There is a very general feeling here that Douglas has been making very great exertions & spreading much money. But I think he began the game too early & played it too barefacedly. I am not at all surprised to hear your opinion, that his chances are small. I always thought that Wm. J. Brown & others have overrated them.
    It is of great importance that your personal friends thereto be nominated as delegates, men who will work for you, not violently but perseveringly, first, last & all the time. I shall see to this when the time comes. Send me the names of those men who you think may be implicitly confided in.
    I advise that you write to Stewart, clerk of the court here, if you have not already done so. He is a true friend of yours. Would not Major McCoy be a suitable delegate from his district?
    There will be no difficulty in sending up delegates, without instructions as to first or second choice. That is the proper course, & I'll see to it that it is taken.
    Remember me kindly to Bright & Whitcomb & to our delegation in the lower house.
& Believe me, my dear Lane
    Faithfully yr. friend
        Robert Dale Owen
To Hon.
    Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Tualatin Mills Feby. 2nd 1852
    Washington Co. O.T.
Hon. Joseph Lane
    Dear Sir
        Agreeably to your request previous to your departure for the capital, I take up my pen to inform you of passing events in this country. You are aware no doubt of the excitement here growing out of the disagreement of the members as to the proper place of holding the Territorial Legislature and also the course pursued by the court and the Hon. O. C. Pratt as well as all the other officers of the government. There will no doubt be an effort to entangle you with and in these difficulties. Your good sense I am satisfied will dictate the proper course for you to pursue in the premises. The nullifiers, as their opponents call them, depend entirely on your influence to carry the matter through Congress and have their acts approved, right or wrong. Judge Pratt is the man to be benefited by the measure if successful. He was entirely and politically down. It was neck or nothing with him, nothing to lose, and all to gain. If the measure succeeds Pratt is to be the next Delegate. He is writing himself into notice. See article in the last Statesman
[January 27, 1852, page 1] signed La Creole, Nesmith Mills, Polk Co. Strange as it may appear, it was written by his Hon. O. C. Pratt.
    The improvement of our rivers are matters that the people of this Territory are all interested in, and of vastly more importance to all the good people than the mere question as to where the Legislature shall meet. I hope and have no doubt that you will use your influence to have an appropriation for the improvement of the Clackamas rapids, and if an appropriation is made care should be taken to have suitable commissioners appointed so that the money would be properly applied. If left to the Legislature a large portion of it would be squandered, I have no doubt, without any beneficial result, but would be the subject of political dissensions.
    Appropriations for Territorial roads are much needed, and without some appropriations from Congress it would be a long time before suitable roads would be made for the inland communication between the extremes of the Territory. It would facilitate trade and would be the means of settling up the country.
    The late land law of Congress seems to be a subject of some interest, as you know, in this country. As to its general features I can't say that I can find much fault with it. [It] might have been that a law might be devised that would suit my own case better, but whether the country at large would be as much benefited I very much doubt. To simplify and make its provisions more intelligible would be a matter that would benefit the whole community, and some of the details of the bill might be much improved.
    The extinguishment of the Cayuse War debt by the general government is anxiously looked for and is no more than common justice to those who gave their time and means for the support of that war that they should be paid the full amount of their claims, and that government should make liberal donations [of] land to all that served in the war. All those things are matters of general interest with us which I have no doubt will receive a full share of your influence and attention.
    The reestablishment of United States troops in our Territory is anxiously looked for, not in the cities but on the frontier.
    We have had a very pleasant winter. So far the lumber trade is improving and business is brisk in every branch except the mercantile; that is rather dull.
    I hope you will write me and favor me with public documents &c. direct to Linn City. I will write again as soon as I receive a line from you.
Respectfully your most obt servt.
    James M. Moore
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



(Copy)
Washington Feby. 6th 1852
Sir;
    At the last session of Congress an act was passed appropriating the sum of fifteen thousand dollars for a lighthouse, fog signals &c. at the mouth of the Umpqua River in Oregon Territory. Will you please inform me what steps, if any, have been taken to carry out the object of this appropriation. The interest of the southern portion of that Territory will be greatly promoted by the speedy erection of the lighthouse and other improvements at the mouth of this river for which this appropriation was made, and I am exceedingly desirous that should this appropriation of fifteen thousand be found insufficient for the immediate construction of these works, at this session I may secure further appropriation sufficient to secure the completion of the work.
    You will oblige me by furnishing me with such information upon this subject as may be in your possession, at your earliest convenience.
I am sir with great respect
    Your obt. servt.
        [Joseph Lane]
To Hon. Secy. of Treasury
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Washington Febr. 6th 1852
Sir;
    I have read with great interest a copy of the letter addressed to the Commr. of the Genl. Land Office by John Evans, Geologist for the Territory of Oregon, in reference to his geological surveys in that Territory and by that office kindly furnished me.
    I am well aware of the inestimable importance of a geological survey of that country as essentially conducive to the development of its rich and valuable resources, and I am pleased that the indomitable energy and experienced ability of Professor Evans has been appointed to that labor. It seems from the letter to which I allude that a further appropriation of ten thousand dollars will be necessary in order to carry on this survey during the coming year. Like Prof. Evans I am an economist, and anxious that all appropriations for the use should be disbursed as well as created with a view to economy as well as utility. I am, however, decidedly in favor of this appropriation thus asked by Prof. Evans, and in order to obtain it will thank you for such estimates, reports &c. as may be in your possession establishing the necessity for such an appropriation, upon which I may base my propositions to that effect before the House of Representatives. I shall also be under obligations to you for any other aid and information in reference to this subject you may be pleased to extend me.
[Joseph Lane]
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library





Nesmith's Mill, Feb. 10th 1852
Dear Genl.,
    Enclosed I send you some petitions in relation to mail routes.
    I received your kind letter of support 1 ult. I suppose that you had not received any of mine at that date. I had written you twice in relation to the purchase of mill stones, but had received no answer.
    I see that the good people of Louisiana gave you a kind and welcome reception. I was interested in the report of your speech, especially that part in which you stated that you had "prayed" daily for the preservation of the Union. I think that I recalled having heard one of your petitions to the throne of grace, offered up about the time you rolled down the mountain. I shall never forget that prayer!!!
    Your friends here all remember you affectionately.
    I saw Nat last week. He was getting along well. Joe is still on his claim.
    I suppose that you have correspondents who keep you fully advised of all our political movements. The people are making it rather warm here just now for the Whig political officers. I will write you again shortly at length. In the meantime believe me
Your friend
    J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Honolulu Feby. 10th 1852
Dear Sir;
    I wrote a few days ago to Mr. Hamlin in relation to an exchange of certain commodities of these islands free of duty for certain others of Oregon and California. You are doubtless aware that the sugar plantations here are struggling for existence, and that since California has begun to supply herself with potatoes and other vegetables these Islands have but little to export with which to pay for the goods which still continue to come from all parts of the world. If Sandwich Island's sugar could be admitted into Oregon and California free of duty in consideration of the admission of flour, lumber and salmon from our coast free here, it would be a gain on both sides. If you will examine our treaties with Mexico, Ecuador, Peru &c. you will see that in such case they too could bring their sugar [to] California and Oregon free as the same conditions being entitled to all the privileges of the most favored nations, but I do no find anything in our treaties with Spain or China which would entitle them to the privilege. (I have only the old edition of the laws and later copies in pamphlets.) It is Chinese and Manila (Spanish) which competes most with that of the islands. The Spanish American states have not much to sell. I wish you would see the California Senators and Reps. and Gen. Lane, the Delegate from Oregon, and learn their views on the subject and if it shall be found that the thing can be done without involving us in a difficulty with any of the countries with which we have treaties yielding them the privileges of the most favored nations. I hope an arrangement may be made. The planters here are nearly or quite all Americans, and more Americans would come if sugar cultivation were made profitable. It would give the American population a controlling preponderance here which no adverse causes could overthrow. As it is now this is not so certain. The present King's ministers are all right, but we cannot be sure of keeping them in, for there is an anti-American influence constantly plotting against them, and trying to prejudice the King against them. He is much addicted to the bottle. His ministers try to keep him sober--their enemies try to get him drunk and to profit by it as they do, some of them being his boon companions. In this state of things there is no knowing what he may do. He cannot live long unless he alters his course. The Protestant missionaries all have strong American partialities and great influence. The Catholic missionaries are all hostile to annexation, and they have made proselytes of nearly two fifths of the natives. These are facts to be considered, for the popular branch of the legislative body is elected by universal suffrage. These native Catholic converts can all be taken to the polls like a flock of sheep. Already they have had their tickets marked with a cross † to prevent mistakes in voting. If they get a majority they will control the house of representatives. We want more white population from the States, and the commercial arrangement I speak of would secure this while it would injure nobody on your side of the continent. Sugar is as much an article of necessity as coffee or tea--nay, more so, and would be better entitled to into the U.S. free of duty, but for the principle of protection. We raise sugar in Louisiana, Florida and Texas, but no tea or coffee. I therefore would not desire to take off anything from the 30 percent on sugar on your side [of] the continent. But the admission of Sandwich Island sugar into the Pacific States would not affect the American planters on the Atlantic side. I have written to Mr. Webster on this subject, but do not know what his views are or the President's. You will see the propriety of not giving me as authority for what I have said of the King's dissipation. He is very friendly to me and I wish to keep him so. Wish I could keep him sober. He has good sense, but not so strong as his appetite.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Oregon Territory February 17th 1852
    Marion County five miles east of Salem
To the Hon. Joseph Lane Delegate from Oregon
    Dear Sir, the object of my writing to you is to request you to have one of the best Democratic weekly newspapers that is printed in Washington City sent to me. My friend Waldo informed me that if you would pay for it and write me a line authorizing me to pay the money to him that he would settle with you. If this course does not suit you, I would be glad you would write me a line prescribing the course that I should take in transmitting the money. If you have a paper sent to me, have all the back numbers sent from the commencement of the present session of Congress.
    Our once happy country is now in a deplorable situation. The Governor and 2 of the judges are overriding the laws enacted by the people's representative. The Legislature in turn have attempted to render those judges as harmless as possible by districting the Territory anew and giving Judge Nelson Clackamas Co. & Judge Strong the north side of the Columbia & Judge Pratt the balance of the Territory. Judge Pratt will hold a court in those counties taken from Judge Nelson's former district & Judge Nelson will attempt to hold a court in those counties also, the Democrats arrayed on the one side and the Whigs on the other, and what will be the result God only knows. All persons desiring good order is looking to the Congress of the United States for relief by declaring the laws enacted by the people's representatives to be valid or to the great Democracy of the Union by rising in her majesty & hurling those pretended haters of proscription from their high places & electing men in their stead that will behead Old Dinwiddy and the balance of those vampires that has been quartered upon us by the federal government against our will. I have no doubt of your willingness and your ability to do all that is in your power to do, in relieving us from our present situation, and if you should be elected President of the United States I have no doubt that Old Dinwiddy's days will be numbered; at any rate in that event if you do not dismiss him as soon as you get the President's chair fully warmed I shall never vote for you again for any office be it great or small.
With high consideration of respect
    I am yours truly, Nicholas Shrum
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Sound Doctrine--Letter from Gen. Lane
    The following letter from Gen. Lane to Mr. Deady will be read with the deepest interest. It is but one of a large number of like purport, which have been received in the Territory:
    Washington City, Feb. 19, 1852.           
M. P. Deady, esq.--Dear Sir:
    * * * I consider it quite unfortunate that there has been any difference of opinion between the Governor and Legislative Assembly, in reference to the location of the seat of government. The Representatives of the people are the only lawmaking power known to the people of Oregon, so far as municipal enactments are concerned. The acts of the Assembly, therefore, should be respected and sustained, not only by every citizen, but every civil and military officer of the Territory, AND ESPECIALLY BY ONE WHOSE DUTY IT IS TO SEE THAT THE LAWS ARE FAITHFULLY EXECUTED, AND WHO HAS NO RIGHT OR POWER TO DECIDE UPON THE VALIDITY OR CONSTITUTIONALITY OF LAWS PASSED BY THE ASSEMBLY. I HATE TECHNICAL QUIBBLES AND EVASIONS. To me it would have been enough to know that the Assembly had located, by enactment, the seat of government, and SO IT SHOULD HAVE BEEN TO ANY MAN, GOVERNOR OR OTHER. The Assembly have, in my judgment, acted correctly in holding their session at Salem. The legality of these acts at Salem are, in my opinion, as unquestionable as the acts of any former session, and so Congress, I have no doubt, will consider them. Your memorial is before the Committee on Territories. I am preparing a bill in accordance with the wish of the Assembly, that is to extend to the people the right to elect their Governor, judges, &c.
    Now, my dear sir, lose no time in urging a complete organization of our party. * * * You may depend upon my doing everything in my power for the promotion of the interests of the people of Oregon.
    Your friend,
        JO. LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, May 11, 1852, page 2


Island Mills O.T.
    Feby. 21st 1852
Dear Father
    Yours of December 21st came to hand by last mail. I am truly sorry to learn that Joe has made false statements to you about his condition in reference to provisions and money, for I assure you that I purchased all the provisions that he wanted. He made out a bill himself, and every item that was mentioned in it to the full extent was sent to him, and I gave him all the money I had. This was all I could do, and I told him to buy a wagon and oxen and I would pay anything we had in the mills for them, but he could not get any on these conditions. Now I ask is it my fault? Can a man give that that he has not? So far as his doing anything in reference to improving the claim is concerned, it's all in my eye, but I think he will stay about it enough to hold it until your return, and that of course is better than to lose it entirely.
    I have seen Smith once, and he promised to make out your bill and give me a receipt for the articles used as Indian presents, but he is now out of town and I don't know when I will be able to get the documents ready to send on to you. At any rate I will do all I can to expedite the matter. R. R. Thompson will give me a recpt. for the tobacco anytime. I have not written to Capt. P. Thompson, but will as soon as I can ascertain when to write.
    Times are extremely dull and daily growing worse. I am driving ahead all I can trying to make money, but I assure [you] it's a very uphill business. The people are leaving Oregon City, some for the upcountry, some for claims near town and some for the States. If they continue to leave for the next twelve months as they have for the last four months, the place will be entirely depopulated. There is not now more than one-half of the houses occupied. The location excitement is subsiding some little, but I expect it will be revived at the next election. His Hon. Judge Nelson has resigned his judgeship but I believe intends to hold his March term before his resignation takes effect.
    You may rest contented on one score, and that is that I will do all I can for our interests here. I have been and intend to be very attentive to business. I want to establish a reputation for doing business correct and prompt, and I believe I am succeeding very well so far. I am my own boss and bookkeeper, as I have got rid of Thompson and Davenport both, and I find that I can attend to all as well as to part. I will write regular. Send me some papers. Your acquaintances in the city are all well and send their compliments.
Your son &c.
    N. H. Lane
Genl. Jos. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Winchester Feb. 22 1852
Dear Father
    I have received your letter, papers and patent office report. There has been considerable excitement in Oregon about the legislature and the Whig officers, such as Gaines, Nelson, Strong and others. I want a Democrat President and the Whig federal officers thrown out. In Oregon we are sick of them now.
    You said that you would be glad to swap berths with me; well, come out here and I will exchange with you.
    You say never mind, better days coming. I want them to come quickly if they come at all, for I think these days are bad enough. There is no news up here. Nat never writes to me at all. I wish you would [send] me the Washington Union and all of the news from the States if you please. Mr. Akin and family send their compliments to you. Give my compliments to Lockhart and others.
I remain your affect. son
    Jo. S. Lane
Jos. Lane
   

    Mr. Ingalls and family send their respects to you, and Mr. Evans of Oregon City requests me to say to you that he was living in Umpqua, and anything that you send to him send it to this place.
Yours
    Jo. S. Lane
Genl. Jos. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



House of Representatives
    Febry. 23 / 52
Hon. Thos. Corwin
    Secty. of the Treasury
        Sir:
            I beg leave to enclose to you herewith a letter from T. G. Stewart Esq. of Oregon recommending the appointment off John M. Howe
Esqr. to the place of keeper of the lighthouse now being erected at Cape Disappointment in that Territory.
    I have no personal acquaintance with Mr. Howe, but from the character of Mr. Stewart and other gentlemen from whom I have recd. letters in his behalf I cannot doubt his fitness and capacity for the place and would regard it as a personal favor if you could find it consistent with the public interest to appoint him.
I have the honor to be
    Very respt. sir
        Jos. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.



Island Mills O.T.
    March 8th 1852
Dear Father
    I avail myself of Mr. Gaines' kindness to drop you a few lines. Your letter, stating that McLoughlin has filed a patent in the Genl. Land Office against a patent being issued for the Island, came to hand ten days since. I have not been able yet to get a copy of the compy.'s old survey, but will try to have it ready by next mail. I have taken up the three notes that Skinner held of Bryant's against you and have them in my trunk.
    Business is exceeding dull. I am trying to keep the mills both going, but am not able to keep the flour mill all the time at work, owing to the scarcity of wheat. A demand in California for seed wheat has taken a great deal out of Oregon, and the present amt. of wheat in the ground is, I am told, far short of the usual amt. sowed. Such being the case, I fear our business is not going to be very profitable for the next 12 or 15 months. Still I hope to make something, with good luck and close management. I wish you would tell Mary and the balance of my sisters and brothers to write to me a little more regular, as it is quite lonely out here, and they are exceedingly careless about answering my letters.
    I will write more at length by next mail.
Your obt. son
    N.H. Lane
Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Oregon Territory Marion County near Salem Feb. 25th 1852
Hon. Joseph Lane Del. from Oregon
    Very dear sir, there is several townships sectionized [i.e., surveyed into sections], and the settlers are now proving up their claims in those townships. Two of my sons, Henry & Thomas Shrum, who came to this country in the year 1846 with me, and as a part of my family, went to Oregon City last week to prove up their claim to 320 acres each, but the Surveyor General decided that they were only entitled to 160 acres each.
    Now, sir, if this is the law, or the way the land law is to be construed, it will cut a large number of the young men that served in the Cayuse War down to 160 acres. Now, sir, I will give you a short history of the condition of Henry Shrum & Thomas Shrum. They came to Oregon in 1846 & in 1847 took claims and done some work on them, and in 1848 when the news reached this valley of the massacre at Waiilatpu or Whitman's Station, and the captivity of the poor women and children, they repaired to the scene of strife, and when the Indians was considered whipped the main part of the army was disbanded, leaving one company who volunteered to stay and guard the immigrants in. Thomas was in this company, and when they came home they were very bare for clothing and had to work for clothing before they could go to the gold mines. They started to the gold mines the 20th of April 1849, leaving their claims unsold, and all the property they had and their discharges for their services in the army with me. They went in a company that was going out with wagons. They crossed the California line about 25th day of May 1849, and came home 5th day of May 1851. You will see they was over 2 years from home, but not quite 2 years absent from Oregon Territory. They sent letters home calling this their home and likewise sent money home. When they came home they went onto the claims they had taken before they went into the army and are now living on them. If they are to be cut off with only a 160 acres I think it will be a hard case. There is a large number of the young men who fought in the Cayuse War, and by their bravery prevented the Indians from laying waste this country, who are in the same situation of my two sons. The Surveyor General has decided that all young men who were not actually in Oregon on the 1st day of December 1850 are only entitled to 160 acres, although they may have all their property here, and likewise that a married man has not lost his residence though he may have nothing here but a wife. I think this unjust and will operate hard on those that are the most deserving. Dear sir, I know you are the soldier's friend and the friend of justice, and I want you to lay this matter before the proper department, and if the Surveyor General is not acting in accordance with the spirit of the law have him instructed, so justice may be done to all, and if he is acting to the full intent of the law, please try to have it so amended that justice may be done to all.
    If you can have anything done have it done as soon as you can, for those young men that has already proved up their claims and has been cut down to 160 acres may lose the balance of their claims by some person jumping it, and if you cannot have nothing done for them by way of donation try to have an act passed that all those that served in the Cayuse War and has taken claims of 320 acres may have the right to purchase the other half or 160 acres of their claim at government price and that their services in the army may be taken in payment or part payment as the case may be.
    Please excuse my bad spelling and worse grammar, and do all you can that justice may be done. With high consideration of respect I still remain
Yours truly
    Nicholas Shrum
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



In. March 17th 1852.
Dear
    General, I have not written or recd. anything from you since the commencement of the present session of Congress. I therefore feel at liberty to trouble you with a few lines.
    You may recollect a conversation we had immediately after your return from Oregon in relation to my brother (Dr.) Barkwell and others migrating to Oregon. This, sir, was not mere idle talk but sober reality as I now have the pleasure of informing you that my brother & family & nine other persons starts for Oregon on the 22nd inst., their wagons & teams now being on the way to St. Joseph. And, sir, with the blessing of life & health I am going to make a struggle to go with you next spring, my wife heretofore having been opposed, but now willing upon condition that I will go in your train as she believes you will protect her from the Indians, from which source she has many fears. She has also made me promise that on your return from Con. I will take her down to see you & Miz. Lane so as she may become somewhat acquainted before starting to Oregon &c. I shall necessarily have to make a great sacrifice of property to get away. But this I am resolved to do. You will please write me & say among other things when you expect to start, and if the surveyors are gone on yet &c. You will please request Hon. J. Lockhart to make inquiry whether the claim of Mr. George Wilhelms to bounty land has been allowed & if so whether the warrants has been issued. Also to ascertain whether the soldiers in what is called the Mexican War, I mean those who volunteered, were mustered into service & discharged immediately & who were afterwards paid for three months' service, can obtain bounty land under the late act of Congress. This favor I should have asked at your hands, but you not being my immediate representative might think I was leaning too heavily upon you without authority. You will also say to the judge that Mrs. Barkwell acknowledges the receipt of the seeds sent her & promises to reciprocate by not only voting for him should she have the right to do so, but will use her influence to secure his reelection &c. No news of importance here except the Oregon fever is very prevalent and some think contagious as well as dangerous.
Yours in the faith
    H. G. Barkwell
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Winchester Umpqua
    March 17th 1852
Hon. Genl. Joseph Lane
    Dear Sir, I will take this opportunity of writing to you a few lines. First I beg leave of you to give you a little information in regard to the unsettled affairs of the Indians of this valley and Grave Creek. The Canion and Grave Creek Indians are still at their old game, that is, stealing, and for which there is but one remedy for to prevent this. The first is to appoint an agent and let him locate himself on the South Umpqua River and then purchase their lands from them. Furthermore a military force is greatly wanted in the vicinity of the Rogue River Valley.
    I have just arrived from the Klamath mines. Business is very dull for traders, but good for miners. There are some new mines discovered near the Willow Springs. The first company made for some time fifty or sixty dollars per day, but upon an average five or six.
    There is no section of country in which an Indian agent is wanted more than from the mouth of the Umpqua River to Grave Creek, distance of about one hundred and fifty miles. The extent of the country you are well aware of. And permit me to ask of your honor and your influence for an Indian agent for the above-named portion of the Territory which I spoke of.
    My politics are with you, and if you think it expedient I will send you a petition for an Indian agency. I will send you one well recommended. I have been a citizen of Oregon for six and a half years.
    I have had many difficulties with them. I am acquainted with their manner and custom. There is one thing more wanted in Oregon, that is, a military road through the Territory of Oregon to the state of California commencing somewhere on the Columbia River and striking the head of the Sacramento Valley.
    I will further state to you the necessity of the donation of lands to settlers, those who immigrated before the year [omission], who understand all the privations that men could undergo.
    There are many young men that are not situated as to live on when they richly deserve it and at the same time they have money to pay for it.
    I will ask permission to say to you that since I began to write Jos. Lane and Capt. I. B. Nichols has arrived from Cow Creek on this side of the Canion and bring the latest news from the Rogue River Valley. Capt. Nichols tells me that the Indians are making divers threats and have carried some of them into execution.
    The best mode of remedy is to call for two companies of rangers. Those two companies may be easily raised in Oregon.
    Which mode of remedy has been suggested to me by some of our most worthy citizens. I shall soon leave for the Klamath mines, and on my return I [will] write you again with pleasure.
    You will answer me on those points which I mention.
I remain yours with
    Respect obedient friend
        Daniel P. Barnes
Hon. Genl. Joseph Lane
    Washington City
        D.C.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library


Washington, D.C.
    March 17th 1852.
Dear Sir;
    In compliance with the request contained in yours of the 21st of Feby. last, I called upon Hon. Williard P. Hall, who replied to me in writing as follows.
    "In answer to your inquiry about the articles left by Mr. Brant with Mr. Richardson, I have to state that the articles of Mr. Brant's have been sold by Major Richardson and he holds the money ready to be paid over on the surrender of his receipt. I will write to him immediately, ascertain the amount he received for Mr. Brant's articles and pay the same over to you" (meaning me).
    When Mr. Hall does this I shall forward the same to you with great pleasure.
[Joseph Lane]
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.


Letter from Gen. Lane
Undoubted Ratification of the Location Law and the Laws
of the Last Session of the Legislative Assembly--
The Memorial--Democratic Organization

Washington City, March 21, '52.       
    A. Bush, Esq.--Dear Sir: Yours of the 8th ult.,inquiring my views in relation to certain questions hereafter mentioned, which are agitating the public mind in Oregon, has been received, and I hasten at once to comply with your request and to give you my opinion with that frankness that should characterize a representative of the people.
    I have ever acknowledged the right of a constituency to be made acquainted with the views of their representative upon questions of public interest, and I have regarded it as the duty of the representative to answer such inquiries freely and in a spirit of manly candor and frankness. At least, this is the rule by which I have sought to square my public action. The people of Oregon are entitled to my views, as their representative, upon public questions of importance to them, and I have no disposition to shrink from any responsibility that attaches to my station. So regarding the right of the people to ask, and the duty of the representative to answer all questions on matters of grave public interest to them, I shall therefore proceed to reply to your interrogatories in order.
    First, in regard to the memorial of the Legislative Assembly of Oregon--praying the Congress of the United States to give the people of Oregon the privilege of electing their governor and judges--I will say that it meets my cordial approbation, and I shall cheerfully comply with the wishes of the people. As a Democrat, I have ever believed in the doctrine that the people are capable of self-government; and I can see no good reason why the selection of officers to administer laws in which they alone are interested, and enacted for their protection and happiness and the protection of their lives and property, should not be entrusted to the intelligent voters of Oregon. In almost every state in the Union, this system of election by the people prevails. Are the people of Oregon less capable of exercising this prerogative than other American citizens? Are they not as intelligent, as patriotic, as law-abiding and as capable of protecting their just rights as the citizens of any other community? I repeat, I can see no good reason why this privilege should be denied them when they desire it. I have accordingly brought it to the notice of Congress; the memorial has been referred to the Committee on Territories in the House, and a bill, in accordance with the prayer of the memorial, has been referred to the same committee. I cannot now determine what disposition will be made of them. I shall spare no exertions, however, to urge the committee and Congress to give the bill a favorable consideration, and, if possible, pass it.
    Second. In regard to the location of the seat of government and the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly at Salem, I will also state that, some time since, I introduced a joint resolution approving the confirming the act of the Assembly, locating the seat of government at Salem, and also approving the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly at Salem. This joint resolution will, I have no doubt, pass, and will, I hope, settle public opinion so far as the location of the seat of government, and the lawfulness of the proceeding of the Assembly at their late session at Salem are concerned.
    Now, sir, as to the organization of the Democratic Party in Oregon. I am in favor of such an organization. Party is but another term for principles; an organization the more efficiently to act together for the dissemination and success of certain defined principles. It is certainly the desire of every good citizen to see his government administered on just and correct principles that will conduce to the happiness and prosperity of his country. But as our minds are differently constituted we cannot see alike, and though aiming at the same object--the honor, the greatness and prosperity of our common country--we travel different roads to attain that object. A portion of our countrymen believe that a national bank, a high protective tariff, and a grand and magnificent scheme of internal improvements by the general government are necessary and indispensable to the welfare and prosperity of the country. You and I, on the contrary, believe that such a policy would be ruinous to its best interests, and that a revenue tariff which will not operate disadvantageously to the great agricultural interests of the country and yet yield enough revenue to defray the expenses of government, the establishment of the present independent treasury system, an economical administration of the affairs of government, the creation of no monopolies, the speedy liquidation of our national debt, a strict construction of the Constitution, a faithful observance of its requirements and the assumption of no doubtful powers, the careful preservation of the rights of the states as the great bulwark of our liberty, and many other things I could enumerate, will "do the greatest good to the greatest number," preserve our institutions in their pristine purity and conduce to the happiness of the people and the growing greatness of our Republic; hence we are Democrats. Now, if our principles are worth anything we should contend for their success; but, in order to succeed, we must organize our forces efficiently so as to concentrate them and act together. The fact that the principal offices of Oregon are filled by Whigs should speak volumes to the Democracy of Oregon. It shows that the Whig administration has not been unmindful of its party friends, and very naturally prefers Whigs to Democrats. Are we to be asked to reverse the rule? Now I do not complain, and never have complained, of this state of affairs. On the contrary, I hold it to be just and natural for Whigs to prefer their party friends, and to forward and promote the Whig cause by elevating them to offices of trust and honor. It is equally as just and as natural for Democrats to prefer their party friends, and to seek the promotion of our principles by giving them the reins of power. If it is proscription in the Democrat it is proscription in the Whig, and our opponents cannot object if the same causes that led them to the appointment of Whig officers in Oregon, viz., the rewarding of party friends and the promotion of Whig principles should influence the Democrats to form an organization for the same purpose. They were the first to enter the field of proscription, but, having found themselves in a minority, they now hope, under the "no-party" guise, to breed dissension in our ranks and to triumph through our division. Let the Democrats of Oregon remember that these gentlemen have been the last to practice that political mercy they invoke for themselves, and they have not yet given that repentance for their acts of proscription which should entitle them to our political favor--the offices of Oregon are still filled by Whigs. I trust the Democrats of Oregon will now see the importance of a thorough organization; it would, in my opinion, strengthen and encourage the Democratic cause.
    You now have my views briefly, and you are at liberty to make whatever disposition of this letter you may deem proper.
    I have the honor to be
        your ob't. serv't.,
            Joseph Lane.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, May 18, 1852, page 2   A different version of this letter can be found in Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library, transcribed below.




Washington City, March [21, '52]     
Asahel Bush, Esqr.
    Dear Sir,
        Yours of the 8th ult., inquiring my views in relation to certain questions hereafter mentioned, which are agitating the public mind in Oregon, has been duly received, and I hasten at once to comply with your request and to give you my opinion with that frankness that should characterize a representative of the people.
    I have ever acknowledged the right of a constituency to be made acquainted with the views of their representative upon questions of public interest, and I have regarded it as the duty of the representative to answer such inquiries freely, fully, and in a spirit of manly candor and frankness. At least this is the rule by which I have sought to square my public conduct action. The people of Oregon are entitled to my views, as their representative, upon public questions of importance to them, and I have no disposition to shrink from any responsibility that attaches to my station. So regarding the right of the people to ask, and the duty of the representative to answer all questions on matters of grave public interest to them, I shall proceed at once to reply to your interrogatories in order.
    First, in regard to the memorial of the Legislative Assembly of Oregon praying the Congress of the United States to give the people of Oregon the privilege of electing their Governor and judges, I will say that it meets my cordial approbation, and I shall cheerfully comply with the wishes of the people. As a Democrat, I have ever believed in the Democratic doctrine that the people are capable of self-government; and I can see no good reason why the selection of officers to administer laws in which they alone are interested, and enacted for their protection and happiness and the protection of their property, should not be entrusted to the intelligent voters of Oregon. In almost every state in the Union this system of election by the people prevails. Are the people of Oregon less capable of exercising this prerogative than other American citizens? Are they not as intelligent, as patriotic, as law-abiding, as capable of protecting their just rights, and managing their own domestic concerns, and make their own municipal regulations, as the citizens of any other community? I repeat, I can see no valid reason why this privilege should be denied them when they desire it, and I have accordingly brought it to the notice of Congress. The memorial has been referred to the Committee on Territories in the House of Representatives, and a bill in accordance with the prayer of the memorial has also been referred to the same committee. I cannot now determine what disposition will be made of them, and whether, in the great rush of business, they will receive any consideration this session. I shall spare no exertions, however, to urge upon the committee and Congress the necessity to give the bill a favorable consideration, and, if possible, pass it.
    Second. In regard to the location of the seat of government and the "legalizing" of the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly at Salem, I will also state that I will urge the Congress to pass a law settling the whole question affirmatively. Some time ago I introduced a joint resolution to locate the seat of government at Salem, and had it referred to the Committee on Territories. Since then I have brought the question of "legalizing" the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly and thus confirming their acts to the notice of the committee. I entertain no doubt of the passage of a law approving the law by which the seat of government was located at Salem, and declaring the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly to be valid and legal.
    Third. The legality of the act "to provide for the selection of places for location and erection of the public buildings" &c. I regard the act as legal and in no respect violating the organic law of the Territory. I am aware that it is open to legal quibbles, and, perhaps, unfortunate in this respect. I think, however, that a common-sense view of the subject will set the matter right. The organic law requires that the Legislative Assembly shall not intermix in one act "such things as have no proper relation with each other" (no one can contend that the location and erection of public buildings were irrelevant subjects) and that such act shall have but one object, or one purpose, one design, for these terms are synonymous, and that to be expressed in the title. Now, I have been careful to read this act and have given it much consideration, and I confess myself utterly unable to read but one object, one design, viz.: "to provide for the selection of places for the location and erection of the public buildings" &c. Surely no one will contend that a separate bill was necessary to provide for a penitentiary, another for the state university &c. Such a reading is clearly contrary to the organic law, for it admits of more than one "thing" in a law, else why the necessity of speaking of and by directing the Assembly not to intermix "such things as have no proper relation with each other" infers that they have the power to intermix "such things" as have a proper relation with each other, else there is no meaning in language. Such a reading, too, would render null and void a general law creating the office of justice of the peace in each county in the Territory, and would require a separate act for each justice created! I am free to say such could not have been the intention of the lawmakers, and such is not my reading of the law. But this is a plain, practical question, not to be fogged by legal technicalities, which every practical man in the Territory can decide for himself in a common-sense manner. The requirements of the organic law, so far as this question is concerned, are plain and simple. I have stated them briefly. The questions for every voter of Oregon to decide are, Does this act violate the organic law? Does intermix such things as have no proper relation to each other? Has it more than one object, one design, one purpose, and is that object expressed in the title? I trust my fellow citizens will decide this question in their own mind for themselves in a common-sense manner way, and not allow their minds to be fogged with irrelevant questions and legal quibbles.
    Fourth. The organization of the Democratic Party in Oregon.
    My views upon this question have always been freely expressed in favor of such an organization. I remain of the same opinion. Party is but another term for principles--an organization the more efficiently to act together for the dissemination and success of certain defined principles. It is certainly the desire of every good citizen to see his government administered on just and correct principles that will conduce to the happiness and prosperity of his country. But as our minds are differently constituted we cannot see alike, and though aiming at the same object, the honor, the greatness and the prosperity of our common country, we travel different roads to attain that object. A portion of our countrymen believe that a national bank, a high protective tariff, and a grand and magnificent scheme of internal improvements by the general government are necessary and indispensable to the welfare and prosperity of the country. You and I, on the contrary, believe that such a policy would be ruinous to its best interest, and that a revenue tariff which will not operate disadvantageously to the public great agricultural interests of the country and yet yield enough revenue to defray the expenses of the government, the establishment of the present independent treasury system, an economical administration of the affairs of government, the creation of no monopolies, the speedy liquidation of our national debt, the assumption of no doubtful Constitutional question, a strict construction of the Constitution and a faithful observance of its requirements, the careful preservation of the rights of the states as the great bulwark of our liberty, and many other things I could enumerate, will do the greatest good to the greatest number, preserve our institutions in their pristine purity and conduce to the happiness of the people and the growing greatness of our Republic; hence we are Democrats.
    Now, if our principles are worth anything they are worth contending for, but in order to succeed we must organize our forces efficiently so as to concentrate them and act together. The fact that the principal offices of Oregon are filled with Whigs should speak volumes to the Democracy of Oregon. It shows that the Whig administration has not been unmindful of its party friends, and very naturally prefers Whigs to Democrats. Are we to be asked to reverse the rule? Now I do not complain, and never have complained, of this state of affairs. On the contrary, I hold it to be just and natural for Whigs to prefer their party friends, and to forward and promote the Whig cause by elevating them to stations of trust and honor. It is equally as just and as natural for Democrats to prefer their party friends, and to seek the promotion of our cause and our principles by giving them the reins of power. If it is proscription in the Democrat it is proscription in the Whig. And our opponents cannot object if the same causes that led them to the appointment of Whig officers in Oregon, viz.., the rewarding of party friends and the promotion of Whig principles, should influence the Democrats to form an organization for the same object. I am clearly of the opinion that the Democratic cause would receive strength and encouragement from by a thorough organization of the party, and I believe the sooner that object is attained the better.
    I have been full and frank, I am afraid tedious, in this expression of my views. The importance of the subject is my apology for the length of this letter, which is at your service to make and you can make whatever disposition of it you please.
    I have the honor to be
        Very respectfully your obt. servant
            [Joseph Lane]
   
[on a separate sheet of paper]
    They first practiced
    They were the first to enter the field of proscription, but, having found themselves in a majority minority, they now are "no party" men with the and now hope, under the no-party guise, to breed dissension in our ranks and to triumph through our division. Let the Democrats of Oregon remember that these gentlemen have been the last to practice that political mercy they now invoke for themselves, and that they have not yet given that repentance for their acts of proscription which should entitle them to our political favor. The offices of Oregon are still filled by Whigs.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library  This letter was printed, with alterations, in the Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, May 18, 1852, page 2. See above.



Washington City D.C.
    April 3 1852
To the Hon.
    Secretary of War:
        Sir:
            At the request of Col. John McClure of Oregon I beg leave to inquire whether a military reservation has been made at or near Astoria in the Territory of Oregon covering lands now occupied by, claimed, and in the possession of said McClure.
    Col. McClure took possession of the claim to which I refer some ten or twelve years since and has expended a great deal of time and money in improving it. He is a gentleman of unsullied reputation, of strict integrity of character, and a good citizen, and in my opinion no such necessity [or] regard for regard for the public interest requires such a reservation. The public interest will in no wise be advanced by a such a reservation at this point, and if such reserve has been made I have most respectfully to request that the same may be abandoned and Col. McClure's claim be released.
I am sir with great respect
    Your obt. servt.
        [Joseph Lane]
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Washington D.C.
    April 7 1852
Hon. Secy. of Navy
    Sir,
        From a memorial I have received from the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Oregon I learn that the United States mail steamers fail or refuse to touch at Umpqua in said Territory, according to the terms of contract between our government and the proprietors of said line of vessels. You will please inform me of the cause assigned if any for this neglect or refusal of the proprietors to comply with the stipulations of their contract whether the remedy is within the control of your Department and if not what steps are necessary to be taken in order to secure to the people of Umpqua the mail facilities to which they are entitled under the contract to which I refer.
    An early answer is respectfully requested.
[Joseph Lane]
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Scottsburg Apr. 12 1852
    Genl. Lane, dear sir, after a long time I take the liberty of addressing you. I have just come in from Shasta. They are settling up Rogue River with telegraph speed, have found mines below Perkins' 50 miles and are said to be very rich, also dry diggins about 4 miles from the Willow Springs, nearly directly west from Camp Stuart. I will not worry you by details. There has been a good many families settled in Umpqua since you left for Washington. I saw your son Joseph about a week since and he told me he thought there was no doubt but you would move to this country the spring of '53, which I am very glad to hear. Joseph was in good health and was tending ferry at Winchester when I saw him. He is holding your claim; he has hired some rails made on it. If you recollect I told you that I would like for you to use your influence with my friends to come out to this country. I have an uncle James M. Eakins of Ironton, Lawrence County, Ohio; he writes to me and wants to know all about times here and is anxious to know if I have any acquaintances that have gone home to bring out their friends. I wrote him a letter which will go by the same mail as this, stating that you was the only one that I knew of in particular and that you thought of coming in '53. I told him that he might get any information on the subject he wanted by writing you at Evansville or Washington, which I have no doubt that he will do as soon as he receives my letter. If you come together I will get Jo and meet you on the plains with fresh stock. I have very bad news from home; my father is dead.
    You will see by the press that they [have] quite a controversy about the seat of government here, and to tell the truth I think they are all wrong. We have had a visit here from Judge Pratt. I don't like him for the reason I think that he is traveling about for other purposes than those connected with his office, in plain terms that he is on an electioneering tour, which looks bad in a judge of the Supreme Court.
    Scottsburg is not improving very fast owing to want of communication with San Francisco. The entrance here has not been surveyed by our Coast Survey. I can't understand why they passed the mouth of this river from the Columbia to survey Port Orford. It looks as though the officers in charge had some private motive. They have been trying very hard to build up a town there at the expense of this. They have shipped soldiers and civilians, women & children, but no go. The only way they ever heard of Port Orford is by the Pacific Ocean or the overland route to the mouth of the Umpqua. We would all like you to use your influence with the Postmaster General to compel the Pacific Mail S. Co. [to] fill their contract and come in, that they can do it without incurring more danger than the mouth of the Columbia. There is not much doubt. I say we because I believe that I echo the sentiments of every man, woman and child of Umpqua and Rogue River valleys. I have no more to say and excuse an old goose quill. If I get an answer to this I will try and make my next more plain.
I remain yours with high respects
    R. B. Morford
Genl. Jos. Lane
   

P.S. I heard that my old partner Howard is dead who was with me at the Springs. He was a fine man and you will be sorry to hear it. Howlett was still there the last account. The Springs is thrice as large as they were last spring. Col. Freaner had got a charter for a wagon road from the Sacramento to Shasta Butte City. It is to run up Cow Creek and to the east of Shasta Butte, and another man, I did not hear who, has got a charter to turn Shasta River into the town. They have changed the name to Yreka City. It will no doubt be a very important town. You promised me some Congressional documents.
R.M.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Indianapolis
    April 20, 1852.
My dear Lane,
    After about the hardest six weeks' work I ever did in my life--having been elected, during the recess of our Legislature, chairman of the Committee on Revision--I sit down to ask you of your prospects & of the moving of the Presidential waters at our metropolis.
    In the first place, how were you pleased with the resolution of our Democratic convention? I prepared them with a great deal of care & with special reference to the influence which I knew they must have on the choice at Baltimore. And further reflection, & the opinion expressed by others, have convinced me that they furnish a platform at once just, safe & popular. If, as I hope & trust, you are the nominee, then I hope also that the resolutions adopted by the convention will be the same ground, both as the compromise & to intervention, that we took. By the way, I am greatly yr. debtor for a copy of that excellent speech of Soulé. It is seldom indeed that a speech so replete with historical research to the very point, & with logical argument & extended views of things, meets one's eye. If you happen to see Soulé, I wish you would express to him the gratification with which I read it.
    Here, the present opinion seems to be that the chances for nomination lie between you & Douglas. If this be so, then I surely think that you will be our President. Douglas has intrigued for the Presidency, or, at all events, his friends for him. The same played [sic] has been begun too early played too recklessly. It must have made him many enemies. You & yr. friends have been quiet, not presuming, not offensive. Douglas may have more votes for first choice than you, but, especially under the two-thirds rule, which will doubtless be adopted, first two votes cannot carry. You, I feel assured, have far more votes for second or third choice than he has, or can ever muster.
    How long our House will remain in session is uncertain. We shall have to act upon at least 150 bills of a personal character, and, under the rules of our new constitution, it takes, on an average, at least an hour to read three times & pass a bill.
    I fear it will sit till in June. Whether it does or not, nothing but the refusal of the House to grant leave of absence to its members shall prevent my coming to Baltimore.
    By the way, during the session of the convention, I was so engrossed with the preparation of those resolutions that I entirely neglected even having my name submitted to the committee appointed to name delegates & should, in consequence, have been left out, but for the sudden death of that excellent old man, Governor Brown.
    Let me hear from you, I pray you, & tell me how you think matters stand at this time.
I am, my dear Lane,
    Faithfully yr. friend
        Robert Dale Owen
The Hon.
    Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Island Mills O.T.
    April 20th / 52
Dear Father
    I have recd. your letters regular, by each mail one. The last one brought several newspaper recpts. and a list of items for which you want me to send you vouchers. Well, I am afraid I can't get the vouchers ready to send by this mail but will try to have them all ready by next mail. Genl. Hamilton has promised to have a copy of the survey of the Island ready by this mail. If so I will send it in this. I have not seen Capt. Phil Thompson, but recd. a note from him refusing to pay the draft you sent me. I therefore send it back protested, and Bush I presume has written to you in reference to the paper. He says he can raise the money if it is necessary, but is at present short of funds.
    Times are exceedingly dull, and business is going on something after the fashion of a snail. Our business has never before looked so bilious. Wheat is very scarce, and flour dull & low, ranging from 8 to 9 dollars per barrel, and lumber is selling slow at $20 per M., and add to that the high price paid for labor and you will see that our prospects are not very flattering, but notwithstanding all this I will prosecute our business with all my energy as long as I have a dime to do it with, and when the last cent is gone I will run my credit as long as it is worth anything, and when that is gone I will run away, but I hope it won't come to that. Were it not for the debts that have been hanging over us I could have done very well, but our greedy creditors keep us all the time drained, and aside from this R. R. Thompson Esq. is building a fine house, and that is and will be taking something all the time, but even with all this I could get along well enough if our debtors would fork up, but it seems useless to ask a man for money. He would put you off till Saturday & then till Monday & then from Saturday till Monday during an age.
    We had a Democratic meeting in Oregon City last Saturday to choose delegates to attend a coming convention for the purpose of nominating candidates for the different county offices. Thompson will no doubt be nominated for the assembly. I can't yet tell who the other candidates will be, but let them be who they may we will try to elect them all.
    The no-party clique headed by Buck and McCarver held their meeting the day before ours and nominated McCarver for joint councilman and Whitcomb, Carter & Wait for the assembly. Their ticket will be supported by the Whigs and the jack-legged Democrats, such men as are afraid to organize for fear of displeasing the Whig officers. Well, we expect a change of administration soon, and then where will these poor fellows be. God send how soon the change may take place, and when it does I hope you will remain in Washington until the appointments are all made, and be sure to have a clean sweep made. Have Preston, the Surveyor Gen., removed by all means. I don't know that there is any fault found to him, but it will make room for a Democrat, and it will please me. Let them be such Democrats as no favor will sway nor no fear awe, and our country will be safe and free from wrangles.
    W. G. T'Vault is on the eve of moving his family to Rogue River, where he says he has taken a claim. They are all well and send their regards. T'V. is the most cultus tillicum ["worthless person"] in these parts. I am glad he is going to move. I heard from Joe the other day; he was well and was keeping ferry on the Umpqua. The spring has been quite backward, cool and raining about half the time. I hope you will hurry out with the family and my children as soon as you can, as I am getting quite lonely, and I would like it very much if you could send Simon immediately. He would be great service to me, and I could pay him fair wages, as I am, I can't leave to attend to anything up or down the river. I have no clerk, nor don't want any unless it would be him.
Your obt. son
    N. H. Lane
   
P.S.  A young man by the name of McCarty will probably go to the States by this mail and will if you permit him be likely to bore you. He is a stinking Whig without much brains. He wishes me to speak of him to you, and you can tell him I have done so.
N.H.L.
   
    I send you vouchers for tobacco purchased of R. R. Thompson. You can tell them they have been laying in the hands of Davenport, and I got hold of them and send them to you. You will find in this the copy of the survey of the Island made by Applegate. It will I hope be of some service to you in securing the Island to ourselves.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Salem April 22nd 1854
Dear Father
    I have come to the conclusion that you are not a-going to write to me anymore. It has been so long since I received a letter from you that I cannot hardly remember when it was. I wish you would write every mail if you have time. I have not heard from home for some time, but when I heard they was all well. I expect you will hear before you receive this letter of the steamer Gazelle blowing up, killed about 28, 30 wounded. Among them that was killed was Rev. Mr. Miller of Corvallis, a preacher of the gospel, and also Mr. Page, supt of the Willamette Company. His head was blown all [omission]; he was so disfigured that they would not have known him only by some papers he had in his pocket.
    The longer I stay in this country the better I will like it. I would not live in Hoosier. If Mother only lived here in Salem I know she would like it better. Lafayette is a-learning very fast. I study harder than I did in my life before. Mr. Hoyt is a good teacher. I wish you would let me go to school a few years yet and I will have an excellent education. Father, I want you to send me books. I want you to send debates in Congress upon tariff and bank questions, Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, history of Greece unabridged, history of Rome unabridged, history of France unabridged, Tom Paine's Rights of Man, also his Common Sense. And dozens [of] useful books, histories &c. Be sure to send them, for I want them very much, and Saturdays and Sundays I can read them. You can make arrangements to send them.
    I have no more to write at present,
But remain your son
    John Lane
To Gen. Jos. Lane
   

I have give out the notion of going out after gold.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Salem Oregon April 24th 1854
Dear Genl.,
    Governor Davis has shown me a letter from Washington, setting forth that ex-Governor Gaines is doing all that he can to prevent the payment of Genl. Joel Palmer's "Cayuse War claims" at the Treasury Department, and is charging Palmer with fraud and perjury in obtaining his certificates.
    Genl. Palmer is now at the southern part of the Territory in discharge of his official duties, and will perhaps not hear of those charges or have an opportunity of refuting them for months to come.
    Gaines entertains a personal as well as political hatred towards him, and is sufficiently unscrupulous to commit the grossest outrages upon his property and reputation. Lest his representations might be believed at the Treasury Department and create impressions adverse to the interests of Genl. Palmer. I in his absence have to request that you will use your endeavors to have any judgment which may be formed suspended until the Genl. can be heard from.
    Any man who knows Genl. Palmer as well as you do must know that his purity of purpose and integrity of character is beyond suspicion.
    I perhaps know as much of this Cayuse War matter as Gov. Gaines, and as a matter of fact I was a member of the legislature in December 1847 which elected Genl. Palmer to the office of Commissary Genl. I afterwards served in the army and was brought in contact with him, which gave me an opportunity of observing his conduct, and I can assure you that no man ever served his country with more true courage, industry, fidelity and self-sacrificing patriotism than Joel Palmer (not even the "Hero of Encarnacion" himself).
    The act providing for the pay of the officers who served in the war allowed them the same pay as officers of a similar rank and grade in the United States army.
    Mr. Wait audited Genl. Palmer's account and gave him a certificate for commissary genl.'s pay. Subsequently Gaines without authority of law attempted to reaudit those claims and cut down or reduced that of Palmer under the paltry pretense and quibble that the officer in immediate command of the troops was only a colonel. Consequently a commissary genl., notwithstanding he was created by law, could not exceed a colonel in rank or pay.
    This affords a fine specimen of the "hero's" military experience. I reckon that if every officer in the United States army should resign or die today, and leave nothing alive or in command higher than a corporal, that it would have but little effect upon the salary of the commissary genl. However such nonsense is too absurd to talk about.
    Another objection which I understand that Gaines alleges against Palmer's claim being allowed is that he went to California in the winter of 1848 and '49, during the time for which he charges for services rendered in the office. It is true that he spent part of that winter in California, as you know, for we came back with him in February 1849, but does it necessarily follow that because he did not do all the manual labor of the office, but saw fit to employ and pay deputies for that purpose, that he is guilty of "fraud" or "perjury," or is it just that he should be deprived of his pay.
    A part of the army was disbanded in June 1848 and the remainder late in the fall of that year. There were long and intricate accounts to be settled, many of which were adjusted by Genl. Palmer in person in the spring of 1849, and I can see no reason why he should be deprived of his pay just because John P. Gaines
[end of letter lost or not scanned]
[J. W. Nesmith]
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




War Department
    Washington, April 28, 1854
Sir
    In compliance with a resolution of the House of Representatives of the 5 instant I have the honor to transmit herewith estimates prepared from muster rolls and vouchers filed in this department, principally by the delegate in Congress from the Territory of Oregon, showing the amount of claims for services of volunteers and for supplies furnished for their use etc. in suppressing Indian hostilities in "Rogue River Valley" in that territory.
    The pay and allowances of the volunteers are estimated according to the rates prescribed by the act of March 19, 1836, the only general act fixing the pay and allowances of volunteers and militia when called into the service of the United States.
    The amount of claims for supplies is stated according the bills presented, of which an abstract is submitted showing in brief the quantities furnished and prices charged.
    I also submit copies of reports from Capt. B. R. Alden, late of the army, who was in command of U.S. troops engaged on that occasion, stating the circumstances under which the volunteers were organized, and the mode in which supplies were obtained.
    Very respectfully
        Yr obt srvt
            Jefferson Davis
                Secretary of War
Hon Linn Boyd
    Speaker of the House of Representatives
[written in another hand on the transmittal:]
Estimates, Expenses Rogue River war
----
May 1, 1854 Referred to the Committee Military Affairs and ordered to be printed.
----
Communication from the Sec. of War transmitting estimates for services of volunteers &c. in the Rogue River war.
----
Print immediately.




Letter from Gen. Lane.
Washington City, April 29, 1854.
    My Dear Ladd:--
    I have the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 10th March, and am much obliged to you for much interesting news and information.
    I am glad to learn that gold is found, or is likely to be found, [in] plenty on our coast near us, and am also happy to know that vessels have found a good entrance to Coos Bay.
    Some time since I wrote a letter for publication in relation to the division of Oregon Territory, as proposed by the people of Jacksonville and Yreka, in which I gave my views in opposition to such division, and urged the establishment of a state government, for reasons that I think will be considered legitimate and proper. A new Territory cannot be made as proposed. The delegation from California don't think of entertaining the idea of clipping their state.
    Now, my dear friend, you may rely on my doing for Scottsburg all that mortal man can do. I feel the importance of that point, and the wants, necessities, interests and wishes of the people of Scottsburg, and all Southern Oregon, and I am as anxious as a man can be to procure such legislation as may be necessary for the advancement of their interests. I have a bill now pending for continuing the military road from Myrtle Creek to Scottsburg, and have the promise of the Postmaster General that the mail steamers shall stop and deliver the mail at Scottsburg, and in addition to this we have a bill pending for separating our services (that is mail service from the company's line at San Francisco and for letting all north of that point to an independent company, to stop at Port Orford, Coos Bay, Scottsburg and Astoria, and deliver the mail going and returning. Indeed everything has been and is being done that can be, for the promotion of our interests in your section, and all others of our Territory, and you may rest assured that I shall not neglect any portion of my duty, or of the Territory.
    Our Territorial business has been made the special order for the first week in May. I feel confident of success in most matters pending. I will give you the result. . . .
    Your obdt. servt.
        JOSEPH LANE.
Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, June 23, 1854, page 2



Washington City, April 22, 1852.       
    Dear Bush:--The Committee on Territories have agreed unanimously to recommend the passage of my joint resolution confirming the seat of government at Salem, and approving the holding of the session of the Legislative Assembly at that place. It will certainly pass. I hope to get it up and passed on Monday or Tuesday next.
    This I hope will do much to restore peace and harmony in the once tranquil Territory of Oregon. I have introduced several bills into the House, having for their object the promotion of the interests of the good people of Oregon.
    Your Friend,
        JO. LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, June 8, 1852, page 2



Washington City, D.C.
    April 26th 1852.
Hon. Secretary of Navy
    Sir:
        I take great pleasure in commending to your favorable consideration the application of Mr. Thomas Harrison as from the Territory of Oregon for an appointment of purser in the Navy. Mr. Harrison is, in my opinion, eminently qualified for the station to which he aspires; he is a young man of excellent moral reputation, and his appointment would doubtless conduce to the interest of the service. Anything you may be pleased to do for him in this way will be gratefully appreciated by him & acknowledged by me.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Nesmith's Mills Oregon May 3rd 1852
Dear Friend,
    Your kind letter of Feb. 22nd was received some time ago. I have shown it to several friends, and it has had a salutary influence in setting some right who had been wavering on our internal questions. I had also seen your letters to Judge Pratt; while they are highly creditable to yourself they give your friends great pleasure in their unmistakable evidence of your being on the right side.
    It had been feared by some that you might be misled by the representations of the Whig officers of the Territory. Their influence here is growing small, with a fair prospect of being beautifully less. If you succeed in getting the prayer of that memorial granted, six months will send them all to the obscurity from whence they came. They are well aware of this fact, hence their opposition to the memorial and its authors. I see that your prospect of the national nomination is not as flattering as your friends could wish, and I don't know that I am much sorry, for if you are nominated you will be elected, then we will bid goodbye to "Old Joe" in Oregon. The people here say that if the prayer of the memorial is granted, and you do not wish to return to Congress, that you shall be reinstated in the executive chair of the Territory. We regard your presence among us as essential to our interests. You say truly in your speech at the Kossoth dinner that "you were not in the States in 1848, and things went wrong," and we had had sad experience to prove that since your removal from the office of Governor that nothing has gone right here.
    I see that you are making an effort to have the Cayuse soldiers included in the bounty land act, and allow all soldiers entitled to the benefit of that act and resolving in Oregon to locate their lands here. This is very proper, and you have the ardent wishes of the community for the success of that measure. You know that owing to the fluctuating state of affairs incident to the discovery of the gold mines that the greater part of the five hundred young men engaged in that war have had no opportunity to avail themselves of the benefit of the Donation Act, by residing on and cultivating one particular spot for four consecutive years, and in addition to this we have never as yet received one dollar for our services. If your [illegible] is successful those young men who defended the country will yet be able to secure homes for their services.
    I know that money has been appropriated to defray the expenses of that war, but owing to some excuse or other there has never been a dollar of it paid.
    I heard from Joe a short time ago. He has been attending the ferry on Umpqua but was making preparations to put in a crop and reside on his claim. I sent him word to come in and I would furnish him all the supplies he needed to carry on his operations.
    I believe that I have nothing further that would interest you
I rem. sincerely your
    Devoted friend
        J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.  The "Kossuth dinner" speech was reported in the Oregon Statesman, March 30, 1852, page 1




Island Mills O.T.
    May 9th 1852
Dear Father
    I recd. from Maxwell Ramsby $2 and placed [it] to your credit, for which he wants you to send him the Washington Union. Have it directed to Maxwell Ramsby, Oregon City, O.T. I hope you will attend to it immediately. I did think I would be able to send you the Campbell & Smith vouchers and the other vouchers you wrote for this week but have been disappointed about getting them. I went with Campbell several times to the old store, and each time he would promise to make out his Indian a/c next day, but has not done it. I will renew the task again this week and stand by him until I get it. Mr. Bush showed me a letter from you to Deady and asked my opinion about publishing it, and after examining it carefully I told him to publish it, that I could not see anything in it that you would care about having kept secret, and I know it will do our party a great deal of good in the coming election. Let the people once know that Congress will sustain the Salem legislature and our ticket will carry throughout the Territory. You will see by the Statesman that we have succeeded in organizing the Democratic Party here, and even if we don't succeed in electing our ticket throughout the Territory it will leave us in better condition hereafter, and aside from that it separates the real Democrats from those that pretend to be. Wait is running on the no-party ticket, that is, he calls it such, but I discover that all the Whig officers and all support it.
    I fear he will be elected. Lancaster attacked you in a speech in Clatsop because you favor organization. I have not heard any of the particulars of his speech, but suppose [I] will see it soon in the Oregonian, as that is the mouth organ of all such Democrats as Lancaster. Wonder if he would not favor organizing a party on the wildcat bank principle. I hope you will keep us posted in all transactions of Congress relative to Oregon. I hear a great many complaining about your writing so seldom. You should write more frequent. Don't commit yourself when writing to those that you know are not very friendly towards you.
Your obt. son
    N. H. Lane
Genl. Jos. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Oregon City June 2nd / 52
Dear Father
    Our election comes off next Monday, and the race in this, Yamhill, Washington and Clatsop counties is going to be a close one. I fear that the straight-out Democratic ticket will not be elected in either of those counties. From present appearances Thompson is the only one of our ticket that will be elected in this county. King, it is thought, will be elected in Washington, and one other of our ticket. We fear that Col. Taylor, the independent candidate, will be elected over John A. Anderson of Clatsop, and Yamhill I am afraid will all go wrong. But let them go wrong this year if nothing else will do, and next year we will be better organized and will give them the worst whipping they ever heard of. The election this year reminds me of home; both parties are at work. Candidates canvass the counties, and stump speaking is quite common. Your letter came in good time, and I only wish we could have recd. news of the passage of your resolutions before the election, but owing to some accident to one of the mail steamers we miss one mail, which throws the next one after the election.
    Mr. Waldo wants to know if you recd. his bill for articles that he desired you to purchase and whether or not you have bought them. Please inform him.
    I recd. four dollars from H. Baker, the pay for the Unions you sent him, and now he wants you to send to him five more numbers of the same paper, which he says will only cost $8, and he will pay me the amt. on arrival of the papers here. You can do as you please about sending them. He must be a mean man or he would not want to give you so much trouble for so small pay. I have sent to the States for papers for myself, and I always put the money in the letter and my papers always come, and I don't see any reason why he should not do the same.
    Our bridge is entirely completed, roofed, sided up and painted, and by far the best thing of the kind in the Territory. I will have a wagon road in the place of the railway running clear up to the doors of our mills this summer, and that will curtail our expenses considerable and will the sooner enable us to build mills. Our prospects are some brighter than when I wrote last, but still business is dull. I am well pleased with Oregon and becoming more and more so all the time. I could not be induced to go back to Indiana to remain for no consideration. My health is good, and my weight exceeds my usual weight in the States fifteen pounds. I hope you will send Simon out soon. I need him very much.
    Your boy John is still alive, but is very weak. I can't find out what is the matter with him. It seems to be something like consumption of the lungs. The doctor has quit coming to see him & says he can't do anything more for him. I am very sorry to have to lose him, for I am sure I never saw a better or more honest boy in my life, either black or white, and besides that he thinks the world of me and would do everything for me, and I have become very much attached to him, but I fear there is no hope for his recovery.
    I will send you a power of attorney by this mail to sell all my land, town lots &c., and I hope you will be able to get a fair price in cash or at least half cash and take mortgages on the property for the remaining half and send me the amt. cash you receive, as I want to make a purchase of some lots in Oregon City now while property is low. Money invested now in Oregon City lots will realize one hundred percent in five years.
    Write often as you can, and don't forget to write to Thompson.
Your obt. son
    Nat H. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Speech of Gen. Lane.
    At the Democratic Ratification Mass Meeting held at Washington in front of the City Hotel, Wednesday evening, June 9th, 1852.
    The Chairman. I have now the pleasure of introducing you to Gen. Joseph Lane, of Oregon.
    General Lane. Fellow citizens, allow me to express my gratification at being here. It is good to be here, and I regard my position now as one of the happiest in which I could be placed. It always makes my heart glad when I can have the pleasure of meeting with the true Democracy of the country, and talking with them about our prospects and our principles. I have met you for the purpose of expressing my pleasure and gratification at the nomination of Gen. Franklin Pierce as our standard bearer in the coming contest. I congratulate you--I congratulate the Democracy of the country--upon the nomination of two such good Democrats and pure men--indeed I congratulate the whole country, for allow me here to say that Democratic principles are the true principles of this government, and the promotion of these principles is the promotion of the interests of the whole country. There ought to be no difference of opinion about administering the government of this country. It is better for Whigs, for Democrats, and for all other parties, that the Democracy should govern. [Cheers.] They are competent to govern, and when they are in power they endeavor to promote, and always have promoted, the interests of all. I defy any man, Whig or Democrat, to cast his eye back over the history of this country and say that any Whig administration has ever tendered any service to this country calculated to develop its resources or promote its glory. They have made no acquisition of territory; they have never been in favor of extending liberal Democratic principles, nor, gentlemen, will they ever be in favor of such progress. They are not liberal in their views, and, with the Little Giant [Laughter.], I can say it is better for the country that they never should govern. [Applause and cheers.] Let me tell you, fellow citizens, I honestly believe they will not have the good fortune to govern again in the next twenty years. [Applause.] The Democratic Convention, which but a few days ago assembled at Baltimore, have presented for our standard bearer in the approaching campaign the name of Gen. Franklin Pierce, a Democrat of the Jackson school. He is a Democrat, true and well tried in civil and military life. In every position in which he has been placed, Franklin Pierce has most ably and gallantly done his duty. Then is it not cause for congratulation and a matter of pride that we have presented to us one so entirely unexceptionable? He has as clear a record in our political history as any man in the nation. With such men as Franklin Pierce and William R. King on our ticket, I am satisfied that it will sweep over this country like a whirlwind, from its eastern extreme even to California, and no ticket that we have presented before will have ever shown as large a majority as this one will receive. [Great applause.]
    I hail from a district of country not now entitled to vote for a President, but if it were possible for the people there to act, there would not be two hundred voters in the Territory who would not vote it. [Applause.] I am familiar with the history of Gen. Pierce in Congress, and I have had the pleasure of knowing him personally in Mexico. I know that he rendered important service to his country in a cause that was just, right and honorable, and that he distinguished himself as an officer, a soldier, a hero, a patriot and a gentleman.
    Of Col. King I can say with truth that he is a good man, long and well tried, and in every position in which he has been placed he has faithfully done his duty. You must excuse plain talking. I am from the far West, where we have none other than honest, plain-hearted Democrats, and I claim to be one of that school. It affords me great pleasure and gives me courage to meet the Democracy of the country here, and especially when I can meet them under such circumstances as the present. It gives me courage to see you here, and enables me to talk with a heart full of love and energy of purpose. We have a good cause and a good ticket. We have justice on our side, and, as certain as God lives, victory is ours. [Applause.] I have nothing to say about the Whigs. I have never had much confidence in them as a party. [Applause.] I have known many clever fellows among them, but when it comes to the selection of officers of government, I have never seen one to whom I could afford support, and I am sure I never shall. [Laughter.]
    Then I am with you, gentlemen, in this race, and with all my heart and mind. If I cannot vote, I will go among the plain hard-fisted Democracy, among whom I was raised, and tell them what I know of the merits of our standard bearers--of their great worth, personally and politically. I will tell my friends in Indiana, who I know are so devotedly attached to the gallant, the great, and noble old Cass--and none there or elsewhere loves him more than I do--and this country owes him more than any other man living--that though we have to give him up, we yet have a gentleman in his stead worthy of their cordial, energetic and active support, and I know they will give it to him with all cheerfulness and alacrity. If it could have been left to my choice, gentlemen, Lewis Cass would have been the man. [Cries of "good, good."] But the convention have decided otherwise, and I hope that the whole American Democracy will be satisfied with the decision, and I have every reason to believe they will be.
    I must be permitted to speak a few words in regard to the other candidates in the convention. To the Little Giant I owe the kindest feelings. I love him as a Democrat. If he could have waited, as I said once before, ten or fifteen years, it would have been better. However, the Little Giant has been voted for, and got a very handsome vote. He is, indeed, a great little man. [Applause.]
    My friend, Gen. Houston--God bless his old soul!--[Applause.]--he has served his country in every capacity--has done his duty nobly. He, too, was supported in the convention. I am glad to have the pleasure of meeting upon this occasion the leader of our party, General Cass--the man to whom we owe more than any other man--of meeting the Little Giant, and also of meeting Gen. Sam. Houston. I congratulate them all, and you, gentlemen, once again upon the prospects before us.
    The convention has given us a glorious nomination. The Democracy of this country know it; they will act upon that knowledge, and in the end all will be well. When we meet here next winter we can then say that on the 4th of March, General Frank. Pierce will take the oath of office as President of the United States, and relieve the present incumbent [Laughter and applause.], a very worthy man--an accidental President, however. Frank. Pierce will take charge of that office with a determination to do his duty--to know no North, no South, no East, no West--to know nothing but the Constitution and his country. I beg pardon for saying so much, but as I said before, it always affords me pleasure to meet with brother Democrats, and I must be excused if I do say too much. Let me say, in conclusion, that I am with you in heart and feeling, and that I am pleased and gratified with the nominees of the Baltimore Convention, and I am satisfied that the whole country will be, and will ratify the action of that body by an unprecedented vote. [Great applause.]
    Gen. Lane subsequently addressed the meeting for a short time, as follows:
    I am sorry to appear before you a second time, but I have made it a rule of my life that when I commence a thing, if I quit before I get done, to begin again [Laughter.], and, indeed, in the service of our country it was my fortune to command forces who would never leave a battle half completed. I intended to have stated before, but I omitted it, that the last thirty-odd years of my life have been spent in Indiana. She is a thorough Democratic state. The Little Giant has said to you--and I know he believes all he has said--that Illinois will give to Gen. Pierce a larger majority than any other state. Now, here is my friend Ficklin--one of the representatives of that state--who will endorse everything the Judge has said, but I must be permitted to say that Indiana will give to General Pierce, over any Whig, just as large a majority as Pierce would like to have. It will be a sweeping Democratic majority.
    It was my fortune in Mexico to serve on both lines under Gen. Butler, and I know that this world has never produced a more gallant, upright and honorable man than he. [Great applause.] I also know that General Butler would not say or do a dishonorable thing, if it would bring to him the office of President for life. He hails from the "dark and bloody ground"--nominally a Whig state, it is true, but one which I believe will, at the next election, give to Pierce a handsome majority. She has not, since 1832, given a Democratic majority until recently in the election of governor. But this year, 1852, is going to be a good one to revive and resurrect the feelings and majorities of the invincible days of Jackson. [Laughter.] I can assure you that in my honest opinion, the old state in which I was raised (Kentucky) will this year give a majority for Pierce, and outside of two or three states, I cannot imagine a single other that will give a majority in opposition to him.
    To the state of Indiana I feel it my duty to tender in your presence my most heartfelt thanks. They had the kindness to present my name to the Democratic convention. God knows I never have desired that office, and I never desired to stand in the way of anyone more worthy and better qualified than myself, and know that no gentleman's name was presented to that convention who was not better qualified. I will not yield honesty of purpose and intention and devotion to country to any name, but I will yield ability to a great many of them. I feel it my duty to tender my thanks to the delegation from that state for voting for me on thirty different ballots, which is just the number of years that I have been in the public service.   
    I commenced my public service in 1822, and I shall end it when Gen. Pierce takes the oath of office as President of the United States in March, 1853, and after that I can assure you that I have no inclination to hold office, unless it should be necessary in the defense of my country's honor. [Great applause.]
    And when I am gone hence, I hope and believe that my posterity--my children--will stand as ready and as willing as I know I have always been to fly with alacrity to the post of duty whenever their services are needed.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, September 11, 1852, page 1




Nesmith Mills June 12th 1852
Dear Genl.,
    Your kind letters of April 6th and 22nd came to hand by last mail.
    I wrote you last winter enclosing a power of attorney from Mrs. Gilliam, widow of the Col., making inquiries about and requesting you to collect if possible that thousand dollars for which the Col. in his lifetime gave Thurston and  T'Vault a draft on the Post Office Department. We have been unable to get track of the money. It is said that a Mr. Brown of Indiana who is or has been a clerk in one of the departments as a member of Congress drew the money. I have received no answer to the letter which I wrote you in relation to it, and it perhaps with the power of attorney has been lost. The widow wishes you to make inquests about the matter, and if it is possible to recover it you will render her a favor by so doing. She has a large family and needs the money very much. If it is necessary for you to have a power of attorney in order to collect it she will send you another. It perhaps would be the safest for you to have a power of attorney drawn up in Washington and send it on here to have the blanks filled, as one of that kind would be most likely to cover the case. It would be but a matter of justice that the widow should be allowed a pension inasmuch as her husband was killed in the service. I have mentioned the subject to Gov. Gaines, who says he will recommend it, and I think by your cooperation it might be expected.
    I learn that the Whig and federal officers' factions have carried Clackamas & Washington counties & elected two members in Yamhill. This was quite contrary to my expectations. We triumphed in this county by electing Holmes & Fulkerson, both Democrats, over Ford & Thorp, who ran against the Democratic nomination. Your old friend Ford has deviated from the Democratic track. We trust that ere this Congress has ratified the location act and the laws made at Salem last winter, and hope that the prayer of the memorial may be granted.
    Our political divisions here are unfortunate for the interests of Oregon, and I trust that Congress will furnish the remedy. The picture for Old Quatley arrived, and I shall present it to him in a few days.
    I have abandoned all my aspirations in relation to "Little Ned," having found a couple of better snaps much nearer home. This little piece of news that you of course will not communicate to my old [illegible], as she at present remains in blissful ignorance of those small matters, and might think that it was a bad day that killed sheep near home, but so long as she don't discover the 
[illegible] it will be all right.
I remain as ever
    Your friend
        J. W. Nesmith
Hon. Joe Lane
    Washington City

Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Oregon City June 23rd 1852
Dear Father
    Yesterday we recd. news of the passage of your resolutions on the location of public bridges, and I assure you it is joyful tidings to the Democrats in Oregon. It sets the vexed question at rest and verifies our words. I am only sorry that the news couldn't [have] reached here immediately after the passage. It would have done us much good in our election. As it is the Whigs came very near whipping us out in the Territory, but we hope to be better organized at the next election. I think the Whig victory in Washington, Clackamas and Yamhill will do much to organize our party. In Washington they elected all 3 of their representatives, and the same in Clackamas, and in Yamhill 2 out of 3.
    Your boy John as I predicted has died. I buried him last Saturday. Nothing could save him. This is I think the worst country on lungs I nearly ever saw. Bresee (watchmaker) died last Sunday with consumption, and we have in Oregon City 2 more past recovery with the same disease.
    Times are still dull, no improvement since you left. I am driving away at the mills making some little money and some improvements. I will have completed this summer a wagon road across to town in the place of the railway. When this improvement is completed the expense of carrying on business will not be so heavy.
    I have not heard from Joe for some time. He never writes to me, and the only means I have of hearing from him is through miners returning from the mines. He has been keeping the ferry at Winchester for some time past & I am told is doing well.
    I hear a great deal of complaint about your not writing to the citizens of Oregon. They say you don't seem to think that they are your constituents. R. R. Thompson Esq. thinks very hard of you for not writing to him. He don't say anything about it to any person but me. I am sorry you have not written more and hope you will try and make up in future what you have neglected in the beginning.
    Write often as you can. I am much obliged for papers.
Your obt. son
    Nat H. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




New Harmony Inda.
    June 29, 1852
My dear Lane,
    Yr. letter dated June 18th reached me only yesterday, June 28. I beg you to accept my grateful thanks for the interest you take in my welfare & advancement. As to anything I may have done (unavailingly, however) for you, it was my bounden duty; it was but carrying out the undoubted will of our state. Had others, through last winter & this spring, worked as faithfully as the majority of our delegation did at Baltimore, you might now have been the nominee, instead of Pierce, in regard to whom, however, I entirely agree with you that the selection was a very judicious one & that he will be sure to be elected.
    If Whitcomb does resign--which, however, I shall consider a doubtful case, until I hear that he has done so--there is not, I think, much doubt that Wright will nominate me; on the supposition, I mean, that it is during the session, & that a nomination has to be made. I say this without having spoken with Wright on the subject; for, somehow or other, I never can make up my mind to approach a man on such a subject in my own case. If nominated I have little doubt that the coming legislature would confirm the nomination by electing me. I have written to a friend in Indianapolis about it who will get at the truth for me. If Whitcomb is going to resign, it wd. be considerable advantage to me that it shd. be during the session. The mileage is considerable, & with the nomination I shd. start on vantage ground. I believe almost every Democratic paper in the state wd. endorse it, & many out of the state too.
    I thank you most sincerely for yr. offer about a foreign mission. If I am not Senator (which I shd. prefer to any mission) & if Pierce succeeds, there is a situation I shd. like to have: not that of minister at any of the principal courts, for there is too much slavery of etiquette for me & for Mrs. Owen in such a position, but a chargeship to Naples, or to Rome. I shall probably take my family next spring to Europe, to remain there a couple of years, so as to give the children facility in languages. And such a position would enable me to remain with them, which, otherwise, my means wd. scarcely allow me to do. As Senator, I should spend the intervals between the sessions with them.
    But pray do not trouble Pierce about the matter, previous to his election. I pity any man who has the government patronage to dispense, & I don't doubt that he will be beset, even to disgust. If, as I suppose, you are personally well acquainted with him, and if the senatorship fails & Pierce is elected, then perhaps I may ask the favor of your saying a word to him for me & backing it up with the names of our delegation, if they see fit to give them. In that case, I shall leave it in your hands, confident that it cannot be in better.
    Everything looks well, in our state, for the success of the Democracy. You may set down the result for next fall as certain.
    Let me hear from you, I pray you, at yr. leisure
& Believe me, ever, my dear Lane,
    Faithfully yr. friend
        Robert Dale Owen
The Hon.
    Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



July the 7 1852
My Dear Father
    I catch this opportunity of writing to you. I want to know when you are coming home. My school is out tomorrow. The reason we have not wrote to you before was because we thought you were coming home. The family is all [well] except Mr. Floed. The scale off of the homemade chimney got in his eye, and it nearly put his eye out. Mary Jane is well Mr. Barlow's family is well. You must excuse all bad writing and correct all bad spelling. You must not expect me to write any longer, for I have my lessons to get before the exhibition. I have cyphering so hard that I am so warm. Goodbye.
Yours till death
    Winnie M. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Island Mills O.T.
    July 20th 1852
Dear Father
    The improvements I have been making and the old debts have kept me pretty well drawn down, in consequence of which I was compelled to borrow money. I therefore borrowed of Daniel Waldo five hundred dollars on six months' time, which falls due about the middle of November--and as I am fearful that I will not be able to meet it I beg of you to make sales of my property and remit in some shape so that I can get it, the above-named amount, as I would not for five times the amount miss having the money when it becomes due. Now I hope you will not fail to send it. I have not done anything since I returned that I regret so much as borrowing that money, and if I get clear of it I will not be guilty of so gross a blunder again. Let me assure you that I am driving things all I can & I believe I am doing as well or better than anyone else could do under the same circumstances.
    In one month more I will have a wagon road completed onto the Island with a platform in front of the mills for wagons to turn on. This done and a few more debts worked off and things will begin to be easy. I am sawing on a large contract for Otway of Portland at twenty dollars per thousand. Wheat is too scarce to keep the flour mill all the time going, but what flouring we do pays very well. Mister R. R. Thompson wants to sell out his interest and will I think advertise for sale in the Statesman, but I think it very doubtful about his finding a purchaser. He asks twelve thousand dollars for his fourth. Times still continue dull, but all who are doing business on a close scale are making money. I am afraid you may think I spend money foolishly, but I can say with a clear conscience that I do not and would add that I am perfectly temperate, don't drink anything stronger than coffee, and have become so stingy that I have stopped buying milk to go in my coffee and tea, and I never go off of the Island during the weekdays except on business. So you will see that I do all that is in my power to drive things ahead.
    As I had to get the power of attorney that I wrote you about attend[ed to], it did not go at the time I wrote you it would, but I now send it accompanying this. Do the best you can with my property and tell all my old friends goodbye, that if they want to see me, come to Oregon.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
   
P.S. Since writing the above I recd. a note from Genl. Adair calling on me for money--and says that if I can't pay him the amount of the draft that he will draw on you in Washington, and thinking he may draw for the full amount. I send his bill. On the recpt. of his note I sent him one hundred dollars in cash, it being all the money I had--now for heaven's sake don't think that I have not tried to pay him, for I have paid him as much as I possibly could--and if he could hold off a little longer I could pay him the balance--but he says he will have to settle up his affairs with govt. and don't want to be in arrears.
N.H.L.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Scottsburg Umpqua Oregon
    [August 1852]
    Gen. Lane dear sir, I received your letter of July 2nd yesterday. I was very glad to hear from you. I have been sick for 2 weeks, am getting better. I have seen your correspondence with the Secretary of the Navy, also the letters of Leroy of the steamer Columbia and the agent of the eastern underwriters [Oregon Statesman, August 14, 1852, all on page 1]. How those men got their information so as to make such statements I cannot say. It only incites astonishment here that they are sincere. I do not doubt that the entrance of the Umpqua is dangerous. I will not deny so also is the Columbia, and it is the opinion of nearly all the sea captains who have ever been in here that if the harbor was surveyed, buoys sunk in proper places and a lighthouse erected, the liabilities to loss would be no greater here than at the Columbia. That interests of Southern Oregon demand this none who is familiar with Oregon will deny. In 4 months from now the population of Rogue River & Umpqua will be equal to the Willamette. In Rogue River every claim in the south part of this valley is taken. T'Vault lives at the Point of Rocks, all well. They had another war in June; the Indians are very humble now. They killed about 20. I saw your son Joseph at Kenyon Creek about two weeks ago; he was in good health. He had not got to work yet as he had got there 2 days before. He came down from the Table Rock mines. The emigration is pouring in, principally going to the Rogue River Valley and mines. Goods are from 25 to 100 percent higher here than 5 months ago. Flour in this place $13 and scarce at that.
    I received a letter from my uncle yesterday; he is still in the notion of coming to Oregon. I shall be glad to keep our correspondence up and if you do not come to Oregon I will call and see you when I come home.
I remain with high respects
    Your obedt. svt.
        R. B. Morford
Genl. Josp. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Hs. of Reps.
    Washington D.C.
        Aug. 15th 1852
Wm. Henry Gassaway Esq.
    Sir
        Your note of the 5th inst. communicating to me the intelligence of my election as an honorary member of the "Granite Club No. 1 of Annapolis Md." has been duly received.
    To you and through you to the society whom you have the honor thus represent I tender my cordial acknowledgments for the honor thus conferred upon me. In the furtherance of the great principles of the Democratic Party, as the success of [unfinished]

Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.



Hs. Reps.
    Washington D.C.
        Aug. 15 1852
Sir
     Your note of the 5th inst. communicating to me the intelligence of my election as an honorary member of the "Granite Club of Annapolis Md." has been duly received.
    To you and through you to the society whom you thus represent I tender my cordial and profound acknowledgments for the honor thus conferred upon me, together with assurances of my active cooperation in all things tending to the furtherance of Democratic principles and the success of our party in the coming campaign.
    My personal acquaintance with Franklin Pierce, the recorded history of his life political career, and his gallant conduct in the service of his country in the field, authorize to me to say commend him everywhere in the land as worthy of the united and cordial support of any Democrat throughout the country, and since now his election is no longer a matter capable of doubt, may we not hope for the electoral vote of Maryland to swell the great tide of our success in November next? Our cause is the cause of the people, our principles are their convictions of the true policy of our government, and with that vigilance which is our essential to the advancement of truth we cannot fail of triumphant success. Our champions are worthy, our struggles for their election [unfinished]
I am very respy.
    Your obt. svt.
        [Joseph Lane]
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Oregon City Septr. 21st / 52
Dear Father
    I gave the the McElroy draft to M. P. Deady and told him to present it and report to me. He did so and sends it back protested, and I herewith forward it to you. I also send you the one on Henry Tanner. I did not present his, as I learned he lived in the back part of Tualatin Plains and was not able to pay. Now I wish you would say to your friends who wish to draw on people in Oregon that I wish they would draw on men who are able to pay or not draw at all, as it gives me just as much trouble to present their drafts and get nothing as it would to get the money of those who are able to pay. Anderson has not written to me since I sent the Hensill draft down to him. I hope he will send it back in time for the next mail if it is not paid. Business is brisk, flour worth from 10 to 12 dolls. per hundred.
    Excuse the shortness of this letter, as time is so pressing I can't write more.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Oregon City Octr. 1st 52
Dear Father
    There is beginning to be a great deal of talk about the next delegate to Congress, and it is pretty generally believed that we are going to have some trouble to elect a Democrat, and your friends think you are the only man that can beat the Whigs, Softs and no-party ticket. Now for my part I don't want you to be a candidate, but if nothing else will do you will have to run, and in that event it will be better for you to come home by the Isthmus and start early after the adjournment of Congress, so that you may have time after arriving in the Territory to see the people and clear up the thousand and one lies that will be told and freely circulated to your detriment throughout the Territory. The Democratic candidate, be he whom he may, will have to use industry and spare no pains or he will find himself beat, particularly if Scott should be elected, and here let me say that if Scott is elected Oregon is Whig in spite of all that can be done. The Oregon Democrats are the weakest brethren I ever knew; the greater portion are only Democrats when that party are in power. And another thing, the people are becoming so tired of this split-up between the legislature and the Govr. and stand so much in need of the public buildings that they will whip over onto the side of the Governor in order to have the money expended if for no other reason, and I believe that if we have to be cursed with Whig rule for the next 4 years that I will leave everything and ship myself out of the country, for I never saw anything that deserved contempt more than these officers and their toadies, Wait, Buck, Whitcomb and other pretended Democrats. By the way, Buck has been appointed postmaster, and Frank Holland, a true-blue Democrat, turned out. I want you to see to this if Pierce is elected and have Frank reappointed. Don't fail to attend to this.
    There is a man here by the name of Carter who is an acquaintance and friend of Noyes Smith, alias E. Olcott. This man Carter says he is a Democrat and a true friend to all Democratic measures &c. &c. He desired me to say to you that he wants to be appointed Surveyor Genl. for Oregon. All I know about Mr. Carter is that he was nominated last spring by the no-party party as a candidate for representative, and his election beginning to look bilious he withdrew from the field and pretended he would vote the Democratic ticket, and now he says he did vote it. This I know that at the precinct where he voted there was but one clear Democratic ticket voted, and a man by the name of Lockwood voted the Democratic ticket the same day at the same place, so my opinion of Mr. Carter is that he is a weak sister, and when the appointments are made remember him, that is to see that he don't get any appointment.
    A man by the name of Quigley says he worked in the mines with you and said something to you about bringing his family with you for one thousand dollars was to see me today to get me to mention it to you and to urge you to bring them. He says he would send you the money if he was certain you would bring them.
    W. Holmes Esq. says he wants to be appointed United States Marshal, and Jo Meek wants to be reappointed. Jo is rather a soft-shelled Democrat, but I have no doubt you will be troubled enough recommending the different candidates for favor. Among the true Democrats I have no choice, but beware of the long-faced hypocrites; give them no office. Let them look to the party with whom they sympathize for their favor.
    Mr. Longnecker of Penn. is in the city. He talks some of going back on the next steamer. I find him a very clever, sociable gentn. and good Democrat. He presented your letter of introduction, and him and I have had several interesting conversations. I like him very much. Mr. Babcock of Covington, Indiana has also arrived and presented a letter from you. I am well pleased with Babcock; he is a plain, industrious and very sensible man. He is now at Portland.
    I am driving the mills all I can. The flour mill is paying well and the sawmill is paying a little. Well now, Father, we can't do a good business here until we get a new flour mill, and if I should get a millwright to make out a bill of the castings necessary would you buy them and ship them to us? If so I will send on the bill this winter. The smut machine you sent us is now in operation and works well. Give us a new and good flour mill and money can be made fast. Without 'tis no use to try. Our mills can't stand much longer, and since McLoughlin had his new bolts put in he makes better flour than we can, which makes it more necessary for us to build. When I send on the bill I want you to buy all the items mentioned in it. Let them be the exact size and number; buy no more nor less than the bill calls for, as the man that makes out the bill will build the mill, and I want him to be at work before the castings will arrive.
    Anderson has not sent me any account of the Hensill order. I can't think what he means. Give my respects to all, and try to come by the Isthmus. 'Tis cheaper and much quicker and less dangerous.
    Write often.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Yoncalla, Umpqua
    Oregon Territory, October 18, '52
Gen. Joseph Lane--
    Sir, I again endeavor to communicate to you respecting some of the most important incidents of the times. There has arrived, and is still arriving by both roads, vastly the largest emigration that has ever entered this territory. They have suffered considerably by sickness, and some loss of property as is usual.
    But the greatest calamity and that which gives me pain to record is the murder of the helpless emigrant by the ruthless savage.
    There has been a number of men, and as many as three families of women and children, most shockingly butchered, to my knowledge. Also four young men who met the emigration to assist and protect them have been slain, one of them a gallant young man of your acquaintance, John Quinsby, who turned out with you when you pursued the deserters.
    Dear sir, in this instance permit me to tender you my heartfelt thanks for your endeavors to procure protection for those helpless emigrants. Also you deserve the abiding gratitude of the people of both Oregon and California for the same exertions.
    A great portion of the emigration has come the South Road and have arrived in the Rogue's River, Klamath and Scott River valleys, and with but little loss of property. Some have taken claims for the purpose of farming, others for the purpose of mining, and are generally well pleased with the prospects before them.
    And there is in this country still room for thousands of others. The emigration by coming this road, as you know avoids the sand desert at the sink of Mary's River [the Humboldt], and the California mountains on the south, Snake River and the Blue Mountains on the north, hence the advantage of saving their stock.
    The citizens have resolved to meet the emigrants on the South Road in sufficient force for their protection in the ensuing season in case they do not get information of troops coming that they can rely on.
    The emigrants coming the South Road should leave the Fort Hall road at the Soda Springs and strike directly to the head of Humboldt or Mary's River, which road is now quite plain, having been traveled very extensively this year. The emigrants in traveling on this road should by all means keep in companies of sufficient size for self-protection, say from fifteen to twenty men strong at least, and keep the Indians at a proper distance. And at any and all times prepared to defend themselves; suffer no individuals or families to fall behind, or get too far in the advance, for if they do they will assuredly be butchered.
    I for one, and can not feel otherwise, than to hold the present administration as responsible for the butcheries on the defenseless women and children the present season. They heard the voice of humanity and heeded not! Hundreds of families set out with full faith and belief that they were traveling under the protection of the strong arm of the government from promises made by the government, of protection, but lo they found it not! And the consequence has been that the innocent babes have been torn from the bosom of their mothers, and their blood caused to welter upon the sand of the desert.
    Where the Oregon road leaves the California, one hundred miles above the sink of Mary's River, is where the emigrants may expect to be met. From this place to Rogue River mines is about two hundred and eighty miles (Jacksonville). The distance from the same place to Sacramento being about four hundred. The advantage of the Oregon road here is in its ample supply of grass and water, and also its good traveling with the exception of a small portion of the road which I will here state.
    From the turning off, you proceed twelve miles up a dry creek to its head at a spring to the left hand on a point, good, fresh water, some grass.
    Thence fifteen miles to two small springs immediately on the roadside, but little grass. Thence twenty miles across the bed of a dry lake, beautiful road, to Black Rock, plenty of grass, but bad water. From here the emigrants has plenty of grass and water and a good road, and can camp almost where they please. Here the emigrants must watch their stock and keep a sharp lookout for Indians. And shoot every chance, for they may rest assured that the Indians will do the same by then if they can. If there is any items of information in this letter which you may deem of interest to the public you may hand it to some editor for publication.
    Your humble servant, Lindsay Applegate.


Oregon City Oct. 20th / 52
Dr. Father
    In my last I omitted to tell you that Mr. Bush had paid me for that paper you purchased for him. I placed the amt. to your credit and charged you with his bill for printing. The mills are doing very well at this time; lumber is in good demand at $25 per M., and flour still continues high, worth now $12 per 100 lbs. Wheat is 3 & 3¼ dolls. per bus. All kinds of provisions are high.
    The emigrants are still coming; their suffering this season has been great, and had not the fall been a very dry, warm and favorable one, thousands more would have died. Mr. Babcock of Inda., Longmaker of Pa. and Allen of Pittsburgh have all arrived and presented letters from you. The former and latter are still in Oregon and seem to be well pleased with the appearance of things. Mr. L. left for the States by the last steamer.
    I have recd. many valuable documents from you for which I offer my thanks. Those that you wish preserved will be placed in the top of my trunk, there to remain until your return. John McCracken has recd. several documents from you and feels under many obligations. I hope you will continue to send to him, as he is an uncompromising Democrat and a gentleman of the first water and one of your strongest friends.
    Judge Nesmith would like to be appointed Marshal of Oregon. I hope you will give your influence in securing for him that appointment. I want you to get him the appointment for two or three reasons. One is that I believe him to be one of your warmest friends; another is he is a good Democrat and will be of service to the party while traveling over the country discharging the duties of the office, and the last is I think Joe Meek ought to be turned out by a Democratic administration. He is no Democrat, nor is he a man in whom confidence can be placed. I hope you will not neglect the Judge.
    I recd. your order on Walker for 36 dolls., but unfortunately he has gone to Puget's Sound, and I don't know when I will see him. However, I will try to see him if he should come up here soon. I hope you have recd. my power of attorney and have sold or will be able to sell all my property. You still persist in coming across the plains. I wish you would change your mind and come by the Isthmus. You could then be here in time to help us in the next Delegate election, and I know it is less dangerous. I will write again soon. I hope you will write often. My respects to all friends.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Island Mills O.T.
    Nov. 7th 1852
Dear Father
    Yours of August 24th is now before me, for which favor you will please accept many thanks. I would have complied with your request and sent you those papers relating to the "Island" if I could have got my eye on Abernethy since I recd. your letter, but he has been out of town for several days. I will try however and get them ready to send to you by next mail. I will here mention to you that I had the Island surveyed this fall, and find that it contains several acres more than the Applegate survey calls for, and also that the last plat and survey was handed in to Preston in R. R. Thompson's name. I mention this so that you & him need not conflict in proving up the claim, for if it is claimed by you there and him here it may give trouble and show a want of system. I wish you would write to me or Thompson on this subject and let us know what to do. I know that it is not good policy to get the thing in such a shape that it could not be understood, and if it is filed in the Genl. Land Office in your name it should be so on the Surveyor Genl.'s books here. Write me if you please on this subject.
    Flour still continues high, now worth $12 per 100 lbs. Lumber 20 & 30 dolls. per M. All kinds of provisions are high. The emigrants are about all in. Their number is differently estimated, but I suppose that I would not be far out of the way to say there was 10,000 all told, which you see makes quite a show in this wooden country.
    Well, the President's election is over, and I sincerely hope that Pierce is President, but it will be some time before we way out here in Oregon will know the result. I suppose you are in Indiana at this time and having a nice time over the Democratic victory. I would like to be there today just to crow over our success, but our time will come by and by, and after the 4th of March next what a shuffling there will be of Whig office holders. Tell Mr. Pierce for me that if he leaves one Whig in office that I hope he may meet with the same fate Harrison and Taylor did, and I am pretty sure he will. I don't know whether or not you want any office, but if you do I wish you would let me suggest to you that of Governor. There is no other office in Oregon that I would like so well to see you filling as that of Governor. I don't know yet who will apply for the Surveyor Genlship of Oregon, but I think a Mr. Zieber will. If he applies I think you will be safe in recommending him, as I believe him honest and capable and know him to be a Democrat of the right stamp. Mr. Zieber came to this country last year from Illinois; he formerly edited a Democratic paper in Peoria and is poor, and I would like to see him occupying a station that would pay him for his services. O. C. Pratt knows him personally and can give you more information than I can. Bush's letter that you spoke of has not yet come.
    I hope you will write regular and often. Do send something to Thos. Waterbury. He says you have never sent him anything since you left. Try if you can to send papers and documents to everybody in the county during the next session. These Oregonians are fond of being noticed, and I hope you will accommodate them.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
Jos. Lane
   

I have not seen Joe in 14 months. He never writes to me. I hear he is in the mines & says he won't go back to the claim. I am uneasy about him.
N.H.L.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



San Francisco Dec. 12th / 52
Dear Father
    You will see by the caption of this that I am not at present in Oregon. I left Oregon about the first of this month for the purpose of going to the States to buy machinery for a new flouring mill, but on the passage to this place I was taken sick with dysentery and from that to fever. I am undergoing medical treatment in this place and hope in two weeks to be able to return to Oregon, as I have given up going any farther. Mr. Thompson is here on his way to the States to buy sheep. He will see you at Washington. I send to you by him six hundred dollars. I send it to you for fear you may be cramped, and as I desire that the $500 be paid to Pratt for Bush. Bush has paid me that amt. besides your paper bill.
    Mr. Thompson will give you a draft and description of the machinery we want for the mill, and now let me urge you to have it bought and shipped insured &c. as quick as possible. If there is no vessel there for Oregon, ship them in a clipper ship to Shepherd & Hale, San Francisco, and I will see to the balance. Everything depends on that machinery coming--and coming soon.
    We will have the new mill up and ready to put the machinery right into [it] as soon as it can come. I sent $100 of the six that you will receive from Mr. T. for a sewing machine to make sacks with. I don't know that the machine will cost that amt. or even half of it, but if it don't you can use the remainder in something else.
    I wish you would send us the bills of the articles and bills of lading so that we may know when they will come and when we have recd. them all.
    We were greeted on arriving here with the glorious news of Pierce's election, and while speaking of this I will say something about officers and men. In the first place I want you to come back Governor of Oregon. I know the appointment would be one that would satisfy the most of our party, and now that we have a Democratic President we will not have any trouble in electing the Democratic candidate for Delegate--and next (you need not mention this to Thompson) I want you if you can to get Mr. Zieber appointed Secretary. He is an excellent man and a true, unflinching Democrat and needs the office. Mr. Douglass of Ill. and O. C. Pratt of On. are well acquainted with him and will tell you what sort of Secretary he would make. The balance I care nothing about so they are filled with good, efficient Democrats. I don't want any office; bear that in mind, and the reason I want you to come back Govr. is so you may be with the family, and I know if you don't that you will have to run for Congress, and knowing that you are invincible, you would have to leave the family at a time that your attention is most required.
    Mr. Thompson will tell you all about our milling arrangements, and will surprise you I expect in letting you know that he no longer belongs to the firm. He sold for $11,000 to John McCracken, and although I think Mr. T. a good and honest man, I am very glad of the change, as I know Mc. to be honest, industrious and as good a business man as you will find.
    Yes, one thing more political. I want you to see that Old Buck [William W. Buck] is turned out of the post office and Frank Holland put in again and also to see that Whitcomb, Wait and all the balance of the soft-shelled Democracy are left out. If there is any place for Curry give it to him, so [long as] you give the Secretaryship to Zieber.
    You will be bored to death by office-seekers in Oregon. When I get back I will go to Salem and try to get the legislature to agree on the men that are to fill the different offices. If you come by the Isthmus don't fail to bring my little children, and if you come across the plains do as you think best about bringing them, but I hope you will not wait to come across the plains.
    Flour has been high all the fall, and our mills have been paying well and will continue to do so as long as there is any wheat to grind. Lumber took a little flare-up for a short time, but is now down again. I met here Dennison of the Quito, and he wanted me to settle the amt. he claimed against the mills, but I told him our books showed him in our debt and that I should pay him nothing. He said then he would have to wait until you come back, and he knew you would pay him. I told him I thought it possible, as you was very much in the habit of paying debts you did not owe, but that I had outgrown everything of that kind.
    Write as often as you can and send documents.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Custom House Gardiner O.T.
    District of Umpqua O.T. Decem. 21 / 52
Sir,
    I avail myself of the departure of the schooner Ortolan of this port now bound to San Francisco to make the present communication.
    The mail from Scottsburg to Gardiner [illegible] has been discontinued. The vessel will in all probability dispatch the letter a month in advance of our mail. I may be thus so much sooner relieved of if not the onerous duties, the humiliation, starvation &c. incident to the position of Collector of Customs for the District of Umpqua. A formal resignation addressed to his excellency the President will accompany my quarterly returns of the 31st December.
    That I have thus long suffered may be ascribed to several reasons. First, I pledged myself to the Honrb. R. R. Reed of the House (my friend on the occasion) that if appointed I would accept and not resign for a year. I wished also to sustain the favorable representations of the Honrb. J. Cooper of the Senate in my behalf.
    I also had hopes that the discovery of gold might make a rush for this district and built up a large trade. I supposed this Congress when advised of the inadequate provision made for the officers of these districts would have made an addition to our pay, instead of passing a bill providing for the compensation of an officer, who was already in the receipt of a larger salary and could live at Astoria at far less expense, and leaving us unprovided for, that officer being of the same political party having the ascendancy in the House, whilst we, unfortunately for our pay, differing with him.
    I have lived alone for months at time, without a white man within six miles of me (Umpqua City). I have been obliged to cook for myself (my salary would not pay a cook). I have made abortive attempts to work. I have acted as mail carrier, and to live had to do things incompatible with my position and duties. I have not had a dollar of public money for 9 months past. My private means in consequence of large endorsements have been entirely swept away within the last six months.
    In the "Kanyon" there were no means by which I would add to my [illegible] trade was forbidden. I could not chop wood; there was neither farming land, nor grazing within many miles of me, the ground around me too wet even to raise a chicken.
    If a successor be immediately dispatched to relieve me, I will have lost nearly two years of my time, six hundred dolls. in money, health impaired by living like a wild beast.
    I hope that all this will be a sufficient atonement for my aspirations to a collectorship.
    I pray and appeal to your humanity that you will not from the unimportant character of the port delay dispatching some officer of the Customs to take charge of the public property, relieve and pay me.
    In the discharge of my duties I never failed to board every vessel which entered the port; without boat hands I did the duty myself. Hands could not be had for the occasion. I had no means of paying them.
    There are no charges for fuel; I cut it myself, none for lights. Rent, freight on public property together with a row boat are all the charges ever made at this office.
    In consequence of the difficulty of reaching this out-of-the-way port, Mr. Bradlee will not visit me. His letter advising me to that effect was recd. on yesterday.
Respectfully your obt. servt.
    Colin Wilson
        Collector
To
    The Honorable
        Thos. Corwin
            Secretary of the Treasury
                Washington D.C.

Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Evansville January 13th 1852
Dear Sir
    Your esteemed favor of the 4th inst. is at hand. I was much gratified to hear from you. Your sentiments in reference to [illegible] are also mine.
    In reference to the state Democratic convention, I shall endeavor to be at Indianapolis shortly, and whatever influence can be expected to secure a sound
delegation from Indiana will be applied. If as you think probable the nomination of Lane can be secured it will be glory enough for one day. Like you I am convinced that once nominated he cannot be beaten.
    Truly Lane is no less a true-hearted man than a brave soldier--one whom the Democracy of numbers would be proud to acknowledge as their standard bearer. I have known him while in Mexico divide his purse with the private soldier when their supplies were short and even give them up his horse when fatigued, and walk himself for miles.
    The Gen. defrayed the expense of sending home several of the bodies of the brave men who fell in battle in Mexico out of his own private funds and utterly refused all compensation. When wounded at the battle of Buena Vista he insisted that the soldiers should first receive the proper surgical attention, leaving his own wound (a painful wound of the arm) to be dressed after the others. Such a man is truly the soldier's friend and an ornament to human nature; a grateful country cannot too highly reward and honor him.
    In Indiana at least the Lane fever is up without mistake. A course of prudence and judgment amongst his friends may accomplish everything desired.
    You may perhaps remember as I do very well that when the Evansville company of volunteers organized Lane volunteered in it as a private soldier, so that his expedition to Mexico did not result as did many others from the rewards and trappings of office. On the contrary, his official honors met him in the ranks and raised him to the station of colonel by the voice of the volunteers and major general by the voice of the government without any agency of his own, and as the sequel has proved never was office more worthily conferred. Instead of lending him honor it received honor at his hands. Enclosed I send you all of the papers that can be found at present relating to the acts of Gen. Lane; also you will find a letter from Gen. Lane to R. W. Dunbar. If you can use it to any advantage do so and then enclose it to me again, as Mr. Dunbar would like to preserve it. If you think of anything else in which I can be of advantage in the great cause just write and my services shall be cheerfully rendered. In Mr. Blythe's speech there is one word left out. If it should be used see that it is corrected.
    Your course in Congress has been entirely approved here so far as we have had an opportunity of judging. I would be pleased to hear from you whenever convenient. Give my respects to Gen. Lane.
Yours truly
    John T. Walker
To Hon. James Lockhart
    Washington City
        D.C.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Pleasant Valley [North Carolina] 14 March 1852
My dear brother,
    Your kind & very welcome letter with a copy of cousin Gen. Joseph Lane's came safe to hand on yesterday. Be assured, my dear brother, it afforded me much pleasure to hear from you & family & I have had an anxiety for several years to learn the parentage of Gen. Lane & to know if he was a relation of ours or not, seeing his name so frequently in the newspapers and in the history of the Mexican War.
    At last I suppose we may be satisfied that he is the son of Uncle John Lane, who moved from Buncombe to Kentucky, and I expect, Brother David, from your age you was not acquainted with him. He came from Georgia to this country with Uncle Charles Lane and commenced building a set of iron works on Reems Creek one year before Stepfather [George Swain] moved to Buncombe from Georgia, but Father [Swain] had been out the fall before he moved & purchased a lot in Asheville and a while before he moved in February by an accident he got his arm broke. He then wrote a letter to Uncle John Lane to come to Georgia & assist him in the business of moving, camping &c., which Uncle John did with a great deal of pleasure & a kinder, better man to his friends never lived in my opinion.
    You asked if I knew Elizabeth Street and who she was. She was the daughter of old John Street who lived in Asheville when Father Swain first moved to Buncombe and sheriff of the county at that time & a respectable man. Street at that time had only three children living with him—Anthony, Elizabeth & James. I went to school with James, the youngest child. If he ever had any more children, I never saw them. The old man after that moved from Asheville to the Capt. Garrison place on the road below Asheville & at that place Uncle John Lane married his daughter Elizabeth & I was at the wedding and a funny time we had. Some time after that the old man moved to the West, but I do not know where. In the fall of 1804 Uncle John Lane moved in to Kentucky and I purchased his land and let him have the wagon & team that he moved to Kentucky in & paid the balance in cash. It was the place on Turkey Creek that old Mr. Siles lived on & in that year I made an arrangement for the land I now live on. I think it was about the last of October 1804 that I bid farewell for the last time with Uncle John and Aunt Betsy Lane & pressed their little children to my bosom. Of course, I must have seen the Gen. when he was about 3 years old & is little Joseph yet alive. I loved Uncle John for his pure kindness & friendship & I feel thankful to almighty God for the good success of his little children [Rev. Jesse and Gen. Joseph Lane]. He was not very successful with his ironworks but he had a plenty to live on when he left and I believe the good will of everybody that knew him, and when I think it all over in regard to his children, I am ready to say sure enough the battle is not to the strong man nor the race to the swift but the good providence of God has been with them like he was with old Jacob's little Joseph. He made one governor of Egypt & the other of Oregon, & I was glad to learn that one of his sons was a religious man & a preacher.
    I was well acquainted with my Aunts Kilpatrick Mary, Sarah, & Betsy Montgomery and have had some accounts by letters from these families but never could learn much from Uncle John & Aunt Montgomery. When Uncle John & Thomas Kilpatrick moved to the West they moved through Buncombe & stopped on the road two or three days & came up to Father's on his Beaver Dam place and stayed there. Mary & Sarah was twin sisters & married two brothers John & Thomas Kilpatrick. I should think Cousin Lane could get on the Lanes & come to see you before he returns home. Be sure to invite him.
    And now, Brother David, I must insist on you to be sure to visit your native land this coming summer with the full view of staying till fall and let them do without you one summer at Chapel Hill or die just as they please. Everybody that is all your acquaintance wants to see you. Old Buncombe claims you as one of her most honored sons & your relations all wants to see you.
    I know there are counties of more wealth and refined society & rivers of more magnitude and grandeur than the French Broad & Swannanoa & yet in them perhaps you have swum often when you was a boy and drank of the limpid streams. Let me know by a few lines that you will come so that I may begin to feel glad. Give my best compliments to sister Eleanor, Caroline, Richard & sweet little babe.
Your affectionate
    James Lowry
    I should like to see Professor Mitchell in the mountains once more. Give him my best compliments. My wife sends her best compliments to you & wishes the happiness of becoming acquainted with your family. If I knew Cousin Lane would visit you in May I am almost ready to say that I would try & meet him there but it is uncertain whether I could get off. Farewell, may God bless you.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Hallowell April 19th 1852
Sir
    Capt. Rufus Ingalls, a native of this state, now at Vancouver's Island, is desirous of being promoted to the paymaster department. I need not speak to you of his merits as an educated military man, nor of his distinguished military services in the Mexican War. They are better known to your department & to yourself than to me.
    I have no personal acquaintance with Capt. Ingalls and can only say that he belongs to a family of the highest respectability & influence in this & others of the New England states. Permit me then to say that it would give great pleasure to our citizens generally without distinction of party & to no one more than myself to see his wishes gratified.
Respectfully yours
    John Hubbard
        Govr. of Maine
Hon. Chas. M. Conrad
    Secretary of War

Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Home May 22nd 1852
My dear Pa,
        I received your very kind letter of the 3rd of May a short time ago and I am now answering it at my earliest opportunity. We are all in good health and hope this may find you enjoying the same. Uncle Simon is I believe quite well again or as well as he generally is, for he don't enjoy good health at all. Little Mary Jane is growing very fast and is one of the smartest little children I most ever saw. She has red hair like Emily's and is a very pretty sweet baby. She is now five weeks old. The boys have missed going to school this week on account of planting the corn, but they have now got it put in and will commence going to school again tomorrow and will I presume go as regular as they can. Winnie goes constantly and is I believe learning fast. Mr. Barlow is now at home. He and his family are very well. Mr. Floed is on the river. Emily told me to tell you that she was very much obliged to you for writing to her and says she will answer it as soon as she can. Ratliff is getting to be a great big boy. He is now standing by me and begging me to let him write some to his grandpa. I have not had a letter from Jo since I last wrote you and I have not heard from Nat in a long time. I can't imagine why he don't write to us. When you write let me know when you heard from him last.
        Please don't forget to send me those papers that I spoke of in my last letter. I received your Biography at the same time that I did the letter. I have read it and find it very interesting. As I have no news of interest to write you I will now bring this letter to a close. Write to us soon and let us know when you expect to return home. Mother and all the rest of us send you our best love.
    I remain your affectionate daughter
Mary V. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Nesmith's Mills Oct. 30th 1852
Dear Friend,
    Your kind letter of August 17th was received a few days ago.
    In relation to the difficulty between myself and the "Hero of Encarnacion," of which Col. King wrote you, it was in substance as follows. Last spring one Enoch Smith was tried and found guilty before Judge Pratt of being accessory to the murder of C. C. Hooker in this county, and because he was tried by Judge P. at a term of the court as fixed by the legislature at Salem last winter, his excellency saw proper to to assume the duties of the judiciary and deduce that the court had no "legal liability," and that Smith had been tried by a mob. Therefore he extended executive clemency towards him, and turned a cold-blooded, heartless murderer loose upon [the] community with a free and unconditional pardon.
    I took occasion to write in my bluest and unpolished style a couple of articles over the signature of "Kentuckian," which was published in the Statesman in the latter part of June. His excellency took exception to some cool fact contained in my productions and swore that he would cowhide the author and accordingly called upon Bush for his name. Bush as a matter of course refused to give it, whereupon the Gov. accused him of writing the articles, and swore that he should take the cowhiding, and drew a cowhide from under his coat. Bush drew his revolver, which perhaps brought up some emanations reminiscent in the "hero's" mind and he concluded to desist.
    When I heard how the matter stood I could not feel it consistent with what was right to involve Bush in so serious a difficulty and leave him to be bullied while I remained safe in the dark. I therefore wrote to him to give my name as the author, that I was the true offender and if anyone must be cowhided I was the proper person. My name was given, and after a few harmless threats the matter dropped. It was thought at one time that it might result in serious consequences, it being entirely optionary for the Governor and his friends to make the matter assume what phase they choose, but I suppose that his excellency came to the conclusion that I was too obscure an individual for him to waste his valuable time in cowhiding, so they made no real "fuss" about it.
    I have bought burrs out here and have got the new machinery that you sent me started, and am doing a fine business on my own hook. All the flour that I can make finds ready sale at the mill for $12.50 per hundred. It is generally understood here among your friends that you will not be a candidate for reelection. In that event I think that Deady will be the next Delegate; however, I suppose that that matter will be determined by a Dem. convention.
    It appears from all the accounts from the States that Pierce & King are bound to be elected. God send that they may is the prayer of your humble servt. and of three fourths the people of Oregon. If I thought that my chances would be good for the appointment of marshals for Oregon I would be in Washington at the inauguration, but I suppose that there are others who not only have more friends but want the office more than I do. I have had some notion of visiting the States this winter and coming out with you in the spring, but this matter is quite uncertain at present. If I should conclude to come you will see me in Washington by the fourth of March.
    You probably have learned before this time that Dryer is down on you in his paper. His sentiments is coextensive with his influence, which thank God is but small. You still have an abiding place in the hearts of the Democracy of Oregon, and on your return will meet with a warm, hearty and enthusiastic reception. Your old friend Ford has gone sail and body to the federal clique; let him go; we are better off without than with him. Judge Pratt used every influence to keep Ford in his right place, but the Judge's kindness was all lost and his generosity repaid with slander. I have occupied this letter with matters which will probably interest you but little. In conclusion I wish to say that you must come back to Oregon. I shall be prepared I hope to render you some assistance, and you know that I will do anything for you that is possible.
    The old woman sends respects. She and the little ones are well.
I remain as ever your
    Devoted friend
        J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Arrow Rock, Saline Cty.
    December 17th 1852
Dear Fealix
    I recd. your letter last summer informing me you had dishonored the draft I sent on you. I find on a careful examination of Rubidoux' accounts the amount I settled with him for you would have exceeded with interest the amount drawn for.
    Rubidoux may have deceived me in that as he has in other matters. You acknowledge sixty-five dollars with interest for ten years, at this time eleven years. That amount of 11 years at ten percent which I have been paying would amount to one hundred & thirty-six dollars 50/100 $136.50. This sum with you would be a small amount, but to me in my present situation would be of great relief. Last summer I had much sickness in my family & lost one of my best negro men. I have but two hands besides myself to work. I have a wife to support, his son to educate, 2 grandchildren to support and your father to take care of; all this I could do if my debts were paid, but as fast as I get anything it goes to my creditors.
    They have been very indulgent; not one of them have ever pushed me; $1,000 will pay all I now owe. It is very bad to be poor, yet I am not out of heart. I look forward to better days. I have nothing of importance to write your relations as far as I know are all well. Your father is in good health for a man of his age, 76 years--he has become very childish and needs attention which he shall have; as long as I am able to work I will divide with him to the last.
    I have written to Govr. Lane, your representative, who will forward you this letter and will pay over to me any amount his family may recpt. to you for, or should you prefer sending it in any other way it will be equally acceptable to me. I hope your health has improved. Your father sends his best love to you & family. Receive my best wishes for your greatest prosperity.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library  Addressed to P. F. Thompson



Oregon City 16th January 1853
    Dear Father this note I write you in favor of Mr. McConaha, who brought with him warm letters of introduction both to you and me from Gov. McDougall and other prominent citizens of California. Mr. McConaha with his family located himself permanently in Northern Oregon last spring on Puget's Sound. He is an applicant for the place of United States Judge for the judicial district north of the Columbia River in place of Judge Strong.in case the judges are removed. Col. McConaha has the reputation of being an able lawyer & good Democrat. I saw Gov. McDougall when in San Francisco; he speaks in the highest terms of McConaha. I am well convinced that the people residing north of the Columbia River are undividedly in favor of McConaha for judge. I say this to you knowingly, and I hope you will see that he gets the appointment in case Strong is removed. He is a self-made man, was left an orphan in childhood. He was without friends, educated himself, and I know you always feel interested in behalf of such men.
    The people living in Strong's district are now circulating a petition asking the appointment of Col. McConaha, but it will not reach Washington before the adjournment of Congress; therefore I hope you will not fail to attend to this matter yourself with the President. For information in regard to the ability and honesty of McConaha call on Col. Weller, U.S. Senator from California or Col. Benton of Missouri.
    N.B. Thos. J. Henley and McConaha are bitter personal enemies and have had an open quarrel. Henley has boasted that he would crush McConaha in your estimation & as Henley will be in Washington when this arrives I therefore wish to guard you against being misled by him in this matter. The difficulty between Henley & McConaha arose out of the fact that McConaha supported Col. Weller for the U.S. Senate in preference to Henley.
Your obt. son
    N. H. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Washington City D.C.
    January 17th 1853.
Dear Genl.
    I have had the honor of receiving your note of the 11th inst., but have been so constantly engaged that I have not had time to answer.
    The points you have made are very clear and correct. My view in relation to the question of lieutenant general are these: 1st that the creating of that title, grade or rank in any shape, form or manner is unnecessary, anti-Democratic and wrong, not known to our law or army regulations and contrary to my judgment of right and expediency.
    At this moment, my dear sir, you occupy the highest position known to our law or organization of our army. At the top of the ladder, it is a high and proud position, one that you are eminently qualified to fill, one from your long and distinguished service you richly deserve to fill; none should be placed above you, but I am opposed to raising the ladder one round higher. I am, my dear Genl., well aware that a new brevet does not create a vacancy, and that a brevet does not entitle one to extra pay, but this is only a beginning in wrongdoing; once gone into no one can tell when and [where] it is to stop. I am also well aware that the assignment to duty on a brevet entitles an officer to pay of the rank to which he is brevetted, and further I am satisfied that creating the rank of lieutenant gen. would properly reorganize the army, to all of which I am opposed.
    I am sorry to find "by some unintentional change in the law" your salary has been reduced. Allow me to assure you that no man will go further to do you justice by increasing your pay than your humble servt., and I sincerely hope it may be done.
    Now my dear Gen., allow me in conclusion to say that I know you to be a good soldier and great general, and that no man respects you more sincerely than I do. You occupy a high position and have a strong hold upon the hearts of the American people, and I am only sorry that you are not content.
I am my dear Genl. with great
    Respect your obt. servt.
        Joseph Lane
Maj. Genl. Winfield Scott
    U.S.A.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Copy.
General Land Office
    January 21st 1853
Hon. A. Felch
    Ch. of Committee on
        Public Lands
            U.S. Senate
                Sir,
                    I have the honor to enclose the draft of a bill amendatory to the Act of 27 September 1850 "To Create the Office of Surveyor General of the Public Lands in Oregon" &c., which was referred to this office by the Hon. Joseph Lane, and in relation thereto beg leave to state,
    That the first section is designed to provide for the widows of those emigrants who died in the long and painful passage across the continent, or before commencing the settlement required by the act of which this is amendatory. This class of cases is so meritorious as to require no commendation from me, and will, I am sure, at once appeal to the sense of justice and benevolence of the Committee. I have considered the language of this section, and think that it will be sufficient to carry out the intention of the originator of it, as above expressed. In fact, any amendment of it might open the door to claims much beyond the intention or wishes of Congress.
    The second section proposes to extend the provisions of the Act of 1850, as thus amended to the 1st December 1855. The inducements to settle in Oregon are comparatively small, and the labor [and] expense of removing a family there are very great--often indescribable. The true policy of the country is to settle these lands, and hence all that will legitimately tend to that object should be encouraged. It is evident that arrangements cannot be made judiciously for selling these lands till the donations are disposed of, or at least all the settlements made under them, and the surveys are considerably extended. If the emigrant therefore to Oregon can neither purchase a home nor have one donated to him, he has everything to hinder, instead of encouraging, emigration. Under these circumstances I earnestly recommend the adoption of this provision.
With great respect
    Your obt. servant
        John Wilson
            Commissioner
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Washington City D.C.
    Feby. 6 1853
Hon. Wm. J. Brown
    Dear Sir
        Herewith I send you a copy of a letter from J. W. Farrelly, auditor P.O.D., in relation to the Gilliam draft for $1000 which was it appears paid to you. Mrs. Gilliam, widow of Cornelius Gilliam, has requested me to ascertain to whom the draft had been paid, as she had not been able to learn anything about it. By the death of her husband she was left quite destitute with a large family, and is greatly in need of every cent that justly belongs to the estate.
    Will you have the kindness to inform me what disposition you have made of the money, whether you have in any way forwarded the same or any portion thereof to Gilliam or his family, and if not whether you will have the kindness to place the amount in my hands to be delivered to Mrs. Gilliam, administratrix of the estate of her husband, who has authorized me to collect and forward the same to her.
    Your early attention to this matter is most earnestly requested.
I am sir respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.



Washington City, Feb. 8, 1853.           
Editor of Oregon Times:
    * * * At 10 o'clock I called upon our Delegate from Oregon, and was politely and most cordially received by him. After the solicitous inquiries respecting old friends and acquaintances in Oregon, Gen. Lane remarked to me that the "Oregon Land Law" would come up today in the House, and also the proposition to divide the Territory. I at once determined to go to the House and see for myself how we were represented. Our Delegate in the morning manifested a great deal of anxiety, and sent his friend and little son to request, as special favor, that certain members whom he knew to be friendly to Oregon, and had assisted him thus far in his efforts for Oregon, would not forsake him in the hour of trial. We went at an early hour to the House, and our Delegate was not idle. He besought of one, as a favor, that he would not oppose this bill; of another, that he would give it his cordial support; another, to help get it through as a matter of importance to the welfare of the Territory.
    To accomplish this, he was in his place an hour in advance of the time for the House to meet. The House met, and our Delegate continued his labors, going from member to member, while the Journal was being read; and up to the time the Oregon Bill was announced by the Speaker as the first business before the House. On this announcement by the Speaker, in an instant, not less than ten voices shouted, "Mr. Speaker!" The Speaker gave the floor to Mr. Jones, of Tenn., who withdrew the objections which he had previously made to the bill. There were several attempts made to stave off the question, but [it] was evident that the silent and personal efforts of Gen. Lane had secured a reliable support, and every division and vote showed that he was gaining his point. He was also ready to put in a short speech at the right point--which told, for I noticed when the Chairman announced that the gentleman from Oregon had the floor, that the members laid aside their newspapers to listen--and all appeared not only willing, but anxious to hear all he had to say. I am fully satisfied that the influence of our Delegate is more than that of any other man that could be sent, from what I saw in his management of his Land Bill, and the division of the Territory.
    I had, with many others of our citizens, been under the impression that our Delegate was not doing for us as much as we expected of him. In this impression, I am frank to acknowledge I was very wrong. I believe he is doing all in his power for our Territory--and is doing more in proportion for us than any other Delegate for any other Territory can do. He says but little, but acts the more--and was listened to with more attention than any member I heard speak in the House. * * *      G.
Quoted in "Gen. Joseph Lane," Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, October 1, 1853, page 2



Mail.
Newburgh [Indiana] 14th Feb. 1853
Genl. Joseph Lane
    Washington City D.C.
        Dr. Pa, yours of the 30th is before me, contents read & noted. Mary & myself have just returned from Mr. Barlow's.
    Mother Lane and all the family are well. The river is again very high and threatens to come over. Weather warm and pleasant. No news that is calculated to interest &c. &c.
    I acknowledge the recpt. of Walker's guide to Oregon, for which I am under many obligations to you.
    In reference to the propositions contained in your letter in regard to your son Simon's purchases of cows, it is most undoubtedly my wish that we should all go together, drive our cattle all together, each one bearing expenses in proportion to the number of cows taken. Mr. Barlow, two sons & John are expecting to accompany us.
    I have my company all engaged; wagons &c. are nearly in readiness for the trip and as soon as the time may roll around will be en route for Oregon. It has been my intention to make Council Bluffs my starting point for several reasons, first to avoid crossing Platte River, & various other reasons. It has been represented to me as being decidedly the best route &c.
    In regard to your instructions in reference to the route from Fort Hall, it has been my intention to travel the route you recommend. I consider that the nearest and most available route will certainly save crossing a great many streams leading into the Columbia River. We think of leaving this point about 20th March, purchasing our cattle as we journey through the States. If I have been informed right, we will not only save our expenses from here to Council Bluffs by water, but the difference of the prices of cattle there and what they will cost us on the land route would amount to several hundred dollars, consequently I consider the land route from here to the Bluffs advisable.
    You speak in your letters as if it was uncertain in reference to whether you would go by New York or New Orleans. Mr. Barlow and myself would be very glad to see you before we start, and I do think that it is the wish of your entire family (if the Isthmus is your route) that you should return before starting or go by New Orleans. However in regard to this matter your decision will be entirely satisfactory. I wish Mary to accompany you out; write me which route you will take when you will start &c. &c.
    We will most assuredly be very happy to meet you at Fort Hall or on the route. Meet us if possible; if you cannot spare the time send out Jos. Lane &c.
    In one of my previous letters I wrote you that Uncle Simon would accompany me out, although he says he will go. You must excuse me for I do not believe he designs going from the fact that he is making no arrangements in that way.
I am with due respect
    Your obedient son
        A. C. Shelby
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library


Washington 26th Feby. 1853
To Genl. Pierce President-elect U.S.
    The undersigned take pleasure in recommending to your favorable consideration the application of Capt. J. C. Marriott of Maryland for a chargé d'affaires to some one of the European or South American governments. Capt. M. was an officer in the Mexican War and was distinguished for his gallantry. He is also a gentleman of education and accomplishments.
James L. Orr
Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.  James C. Marriott was appointed secretary of the legation to Peru.



    Gen. Lane Dear Sir the Indians have broke out and are very bad. They are killing and wounding men in all directions. They killed Doct. Ambrose [Dr. Rose was killed, not Ambrose] and wounded John R. Hardin between this and T'Vault's last night. [Hardin was killed.] The greatest alarm prevails through the valley and bids fair to destroy the prospect of our valley for 2 or 3 years. Capt. Alden of the U.S.A. is here from Scotts Valley and has organized two companies of volunteers. Yreka has sent 60 or 70 men over to help us. I wish you would and I speak the sentiment of the whole valley that you would try and get a company from Vancouver to bring down some arms. There is a very great want of guns. The towns was double guarded last night and one half of the men had to stand guard with nothing but a pistol. There is a committee of 4 appointed to receive money and provisions and Alden has lent the committee one thousand dollars and there is about 5 or 6 hundred dollars subscribed by the merchants here. They are now advancing provisions with the expectation of being paid by the government. God knows when and how this will end. I do not believe that it will be brought to a close before winter. They are better armed and fight harder than when we was in here with Kearny. It is believed by those who have been out that there is from three to 5 hundred warriors around the valley. Lieutenant Griffin's company had a brush with them last night and had two men wounded.
    No more but yours with respect
        R. B. Morford
To Gen. Joseph Lane, Umpqua
Jacksonville, Oregon Augt 11 1853



Winchester, Aug. 17, 1853.           
    Dear Bush:--At 1 o'clock this morning I received by express per Mr. Ettlinger a letter from Rogue River, confirming the news which recently reached us of war with the Indians in that vicinity, of a more serious character than any heretofore with the tribes of that quarter. Dr. Rose, Jno. R. Hardin and several others have been killed, and a large amount of property destroyed.
    It is believed that the Klamath, Shasta and Rogue River tribes have united, determined to destroy the settlements, Jacksonville and all. They are, it seems, well armed, having purchased many good rifles from the miners; they have also a good supply of ammunition, consequently they are formidable. The whites on the contrary are scarce of arms and ammunition. I shall be off for the scene of troubles in a few minutes.
    In great haste, your ob't. serv't.
        JO LANE.
"Indian War in Rogue River," Oregon Statesman, Salem, August 23, 1853, page 2



Winchester

August 17 1853
Dear Bush
    At 1 o'clock this morning recd. by express per Ettlinger a letter from Rogue River confirming the news which recently reached us--of war with the Indians in that vicinity of a more serious character than any heretofore with the tribes in that quarter. Dr. Rose, John R. Hardin and several others have been killed and large amt. of property destroyed. It is believed that the Klamath, Shasta and Rogue River tribes have united determined to destroy the settlements, Jacksonville and all. They are it seems well armed, having purchased many good rifles from the miners, and have a good supply of ammunition. Consequently they are formidable. The whites on the contrary are scarce of arms and ammunition. I shall be off for the scene of troubles in a few minutes.
In great haste your obt. srvt.
    Jo Lane
"Copied from original letters in possession of Asahel Bush, Salem, Oregon."




Mountain Camp, Aug. 25, 1853.       
Gen. Joel Palmer, Super't. Ind. Affairs
    Sir:--Yesterday myself and the men under my command had a fight of four hours with the Rogue River Indians, in the most dense forest in this part of the country. Our loss was three killed and four wounded. Those dead are Capt. Armstrong of your county, a Mr. ---- and Francis Bradley. Those wounded are Col. Alden, dangerously, Charles Abbe, do., and Wm. Fisher, badly, Thos. Hayes, shot through the arm, and myself, shot through the shoulder. There were 8 Indians killed and about 20 wounded.
    In the afternoon a proposition came from the enemy for a parley, which was granted, they being in such a position that they could not be dislodged without the loss of a great many men.
    Today we have arranged terms with them, and have agreed to meet them at Table Rock in seven days from today, to make a general treaty, and your presence is imperatively required as soon as possible. You must not delay one moment in coming, as it is perfectly safe traveling now, and I wish you to bring a sub-agent to remain here, as the presence of an agent is absolutely necessary for the maintenance of friendly relations with the Indians.
    I will remain here until you arrive.
        Your ob't. servant,
            JOSEPH LANE.
"Latest from the Indian War," Oregon Statesman, Salem, September 6, 1853, page 2



Halstead Rangers
    Aug 29th 1853
Gentlemen, commissioners of war and commandant at headquarters
    This morning Capt. Owens with a detail started off for the Canyon. First Lieut. T. Frizzell with two of our men went in search of some stray horses which [were] within the vicinity of  T. Frizzell's ferry. Our first lieut. and James Mungo was killed, the third man a California Indian was shot through the face.
    The report came to Long's old ferry this afternoon and forwarded to our quarters. Lieut. Crandall at the head of thirteen men upon the reception of the news started for the purpose of meeting the enemy and bring[ing] in the killed. Some 3 miles above Long's old ferry a party of Indians were discovered firing the prairies.
    They were charged upon by the foremost of the company, but the Indians leaving the open ground fell back into a thick wood which was not deemed practical to enter by our small party as it being a well-known place for self-defense.
    Those Indians were in the act of driving off the stock belonging to Mr. Vannoy and others.
    The number of Indians perhaps amounted to 30 or 40, about that number were seen. The exact strength of the Indians are not known.   
    Gentlemen, while hostilities have ceased on the part of the Americans in the vicinity of Jacksonville the Indians are falling back upon us and already the work of death and destruction of property have commenced. It is for you gentlemen to take into consideration the propriety of lying still while the Indians are pouring in upon us.
    We will defend our position until the death.
    2nd Lieut. Crandall
    Orderly S. W. B. Lewis
        per N. C. Boatman
            Emissary



The following letter is compiled from a handwritten transcription in the Joseph Lane Papers and as printed in the History of the Pacific Northwest. Another version was printed in the Oregon Weekly Times, October 29, 1853, page 1.
(Dispatch)
                                                    Headquarters, Camp Alden
                                                        Rogue River, Oregon
Brigadier Gen. Hitchcock
    On the 17th of August, I received information at my residence in Umpqua Valley that the Rogue River Indians, assisted by the Klamaths, Shastas, the bands living in Applegate and Grave creeks, had united and attacked the settlements in Rogue River Valley near Jacksonville; that a number of persons had been killed, a large amount of stock killed or driven off, and houses and grain burned and that companies were being formed for the defense of the settlements and for the purpose of a general war upon the Indians. I promptly notified the citizens of the neighborhood and advised with Major Alvord, who was then present engaged in the location of the road from Myrtle Creek to Camp Stuart, and immediately proceeded accompanied by Capt. Armstrong, Messrs. Clugage, Nickell and some ten others, to the scene of the hostilities. On the 21st I arrived at the headquarters of our forces, on Stuart Creek, where I found Cap. Alden 4th Inf., who had promptly upon the first information being received by him, at Fort Jones on Scott's River, repaired to Jacksonville with ten men of his command (all who were fit for duty) and forthwith proceeded to take energetic measures for an active and effective campaign, by appointing four commissioners of military affairs, and mustering into service all the volunteers for whom arms could be procured. This force on my arrival consisted of companies under Captains Goodall, Miller, Lamerick and Rhodes commanded by Col. John Ross, the whole under the command of Col. Alden. These troops had been actively engaged in scouting the country in all directions, and had succeeded in driving the main body of the Indians to their strongholds in the mountains. Pack trains were being collected in view of an extended pursuit of the Indians, and all other preparations were being made with the uttermost dispatch.
    At the request of Col. Alden and the troops, I assumed the command of the forces, and on the 22nd, at 4 o'clock a.m. left camp for the mountains, having divided the command into two battalions in order better to scour the whole country. One battalion composed of Captains Miller's and Lamerick's companies under the command of Col. Ross were directed to proceed up Evans Creek (which empties into Rogue River from the north) and continue on, if no traces of the Indians were found, until the two detachments should meet at a point designated, but if the trail was found, to follow it, and bring the Indians to battle. At the head of the other battalion, composed of Captains Goodall and Rhodes companies commanded by Col. Alden, I proceeded by way of Table Rock in the direction of the point designated on Evans Creek. After advancing about fifteen miles beyond Table Rock, I discovered the trail of the Indians, and encamped upon it.
    I took up the line of march early next morning, and followed the trail with great difficulty, the Indians having used every precaution to conceal it. The country was exceedingly mountainous and almost impassable for animals and as the Indians had fired the country behind them, the falling of the burning timber and the heat delayed our progress, while the dense smoke prevented us from ascertaining with certainty the face of the country. About noon we came to the place at which they had encamped a few nights before, by the side of a stream in a dense forest. Here they had killed a mule and a horse they had captured in a battle some days previous, and used them for provisions. From this point we had more difficulty in finding the trail, it having been very carefully concealed and the mountains lately fired, but, after some delay, we again struck it. Late in the evening, we came to the main fork of Evans Creek (now called Battle Creek) where we came to a spot at which the Indians had again encamped. Beyond this, all trace of the Indians seemed to be lost; and, after searching in vain for the trail until dark, we were forced to encamp. The valley was very narrow and almost entirely covered with an impenetrable thicket of maple vine, leaving scarcely room for the men to lie down on the bank of the creek. The animals were closely tied to the bushes, there being no grass or forage of any kind.
    The command was ready to move by daylight. A party on foot early discovered the trail; and, after cutting out the brush for nearly a quarter of a mile, we succeeded in reaching it with the animals. About a mile farther up we crossed Battle Creek and ascended a high, steep mountain which forms the dividing ridge of the numerous branches running into Rogue River. This part of the country had not been fired. About nine o'clock a.m., we arrived at another Indian camp on the ridge, at a spring very difficult of access, on the side of a mountain. On leaving this camp, we found that the woods had been recently fired, which induced me to believe that the Indians were not far in advance of us. About a half a mile from the spring, as I was riding slowly in front, I heard the crack of a rifle in the direction of the enemy. I proceeded to a point commanding the rapid descent of the trail from the mountain, and, halting, could hear persons talking in their camp about four hundred yards distant, in a dense forest thick with underbrush, which entirely obstructed the view. As the troops came up, they were ordered in a low voice to dismount, tie their animals and prepare for battle.
    Colonel Alden, at the head of Captain Goodall's company, was directed to proceed on the trail, and attack the enemy in front, while a portion of Captain Rhodes' company was directed to follow a ridge running to the left of their trail, and turn their flank. Colonel Alden proceeded to engage them in the most gallant manner, his well-directed fire being the first intimation of our approach. It being found impracticable to turn their flank, Captain Rhodes at once engaged them on their right. The men were deployed, taking cover behind the trees, and the fight became general. I was delayed a few minutes on the hill for the arrival of the rear guard. These were dismounted, and all except fifteen men I immediately led into action. On arriving on the ground, I found Colonel Alden, who had been shot down early in the fight, dangerously wounded, in the arms of his faithful sergeant, and surrounded by a few of his own men. The battle was now raging with great fierceness, our men coolly pouring in their fire, unshaken by the hideous yells and war whoops of the Indians, or by their rapid and more destructive fire.
    After examining the ground and finding the enemy were securely posted behind trees and logs and concealed by underbrush, and that it was impossible to reach them except when they carelessly exposed their persons in their anxiety to get a shot at our men, I determined to charge them. I passed the order, led forward in the movement, and, when within thirty yards of their position, received a wound from a rifle-ball, which struck my right arm near the shoulder-joint, and, passing entirely through, came out near the point of the shoulder. Believing at the time that the shot came from the flank, I immediately ordered our line to be extended to prevent the enemy from turning our flank, and the men again to cover themselves behind trees. This position was held for three or four hours, during which time I talked frequently with the officers and men, and found them cool, and determined on conquering the enemy. Finding myself weak from loss of blood, I retired to the rear to have my wound examined and dressed. While here the Indians cried out to our men, many of whom understood their language, that they wished for a talk; that they desired to fight no longer; that they were frightened and desired peace. Mr. Tyler was dispatched by Captain Goodall to inform me of the desire of the Indians to cease firing and make peace. By this time, Robert Metcalfe and James Bruce had been sent into their lines to talk, and, having informed them that I was in command, they expressed a great desire to see me.
    Finding that they were much superior in numbers, being about two hundred warriors, well armed with rifles and muskets, well supplied with ammunition, and knowing that they could fight as long as they saw fit and then safely retreat into a country exceedingly difficult of access, and being desirous of examining their position, I concluded to go among them. On entering their lines, I met the principal chief, Joe, and the subordinate chiefs, Sam and Jim, who told me that their hearts were sick of war, and that they would meet me at Table Rock in seven days, when they would give up their arms, and make a treaty and place themselves under our protection. The preliminaries having been arranged, the command returned to the place where they had been dismounted, the dead were buried and the wounded cared for.
    By this time Colonel Ross, with his battalion, arrived, having followed our trail for some distance. This gallant command were anxious to renew the attack upon the Indians, who still remained in their position, but as the negotiations had proceeded so far, I could not consent. That night was spent within four hundred yards of the Indians, and good faith was observed on both sides. At the dawn of day, I discovered that the Indians were moving and sent to stop them until a further talk had been held. Accompanied by Col. Ross and other officers, I went among them and became satisfied that they would faithfully observe the agreements already made. By the advice of the surgeon, we remained that day and night upon the battle ground, and then returned to Table Rock.
    Too much praise cannot be awarded to Col. Alden. The country is greatly indebted to him for the rapid organization of the forces, when it was utterly without defenses. His gallantry is sufficiently attested by his being dangerously wounded while charging at the head of his command, almost at the enemy's lines. Captains Goodall and Rhodes, with their companies, distinguished themselves from the beginning to the end of the action. For their cool and determined bravery, no troops could have done better. The command of Col. Ross, under Captains Miller and Lamerick, although too late to participate in the action, made a severe march through the mountains and arrived on the ground one day sooner than I expected them. Their presence was of great assistance to us. Our loss in the battle was three killed: Pleasant Armstrong, John Scarborough and Isaac Bradley, and five badly wounded: Colonel Alden, myself, and privates Chas. C. Abbe (since dead), Henry Flesher and Thomas Hay. The Indians lost eight killed and twenty wounded, seven of whom we know to have since died.
    Soon after my return from the mountains, Capt. A. J. Smith, First Dragoons, arrived at camp with his troops from Port Orford. His arrival was most opportune. His presence during the negotiations for a peace was of great assistance, while his troop served to overawe the Indians.
    The governor of the territory, upon the first information being received by him, ordered out a company under Capt. Nesmith, and sent them as an escort for a large quantity of arms and ammunition which were procured from Fort Vancouver. Captain Nesmith arrived after the negotiations had been commenced, but was of great service to me from his intimate knowledge of the Indians and their language. Lieutenant Kautz, Fourth Infantry, accompanied Captain Nesmith, and had in charge a twelve-pound howitzer and caisson, which he brought safely into camp, although the road is a very difficult one and seldom traveled by wagons. A commission as brigadier general, from the governor of Oregon, reached me a few days after I had assumed command at Capt. Alden's request. A treaty of peace has been made with the Indians, and I have no doubt that with proper care it can be maintained. The tribe is a very large one, and to a great extent controls the tribes in this part of the country, and a peace with them is a peace with all. This, in my opinion, can only be perfectly secured by the presence of a considerable military force in the Rogue River Valley without delay.
    To Robert Metcalfe, who acted for me as scout and guide, I am indebted for the faithful discharge of his duty. John D. Cosby, James Bruce and George W. Tyler did good service in the same capacity. On the expedition to the mountains, from the 22nd to the 26th, W. G. T'Vault, Esq., acted as my volunteer aide. At that time, Captain C. Sims joined the command, and handsomely performed the duties of assistant adjutant-general until compelled by sickness to resign on the 29th. Since that time, Captain Mosher, late of the Fourth Ohio Volunteers, has performed the duties of that office. Dr. Ed. Sheil, George Dart, Richard Dugan and L. A. Davis, the commissioners appointed by Col. Alden, were most active in the performance of their duties, and kept the command supplied with provisions, transportation and necessaries for carrying on the war. Major Chas. S. Drew, assistant quartermaster, with his assistants, performed their duties with promptness and accuracy. Dr. E. H. Cleveland, surgeon general, and his assistants, were unremitting in their attention to the sick and wounded.
    I have the honor to be, etc.,
            Joseph Lane.


Jacksonville O.T. August 30th 1853               
To General Lane commanding Oregon and California battalion
    It is thought by those who have recently arrived here from the Canon that it is necessary  to send an escort of some ten or twelve men to guard the incoming trains, six or seven in number.
    Col. Alden is very feeble. Dr. Gatliff has just arrived from Yreka.
    Yours respectfully
        C. S. Drew



    Rogue River Valley
        Aug. 31, 1853.
My dear sir
    Your note of today is just received by the hand of Messrs. McKay, Newton and others.
    Since the Saturday that the present Indian difficulty commenced there have been no Indians at my house, except one known among us by the name of Old Jacob, and his family.
    If there had been any others here I should have taken pleasure in recommending to them to report to you at headquarters.
    Old Jacob referred to above had been camped on Stuart's Creek near my house the greater part of the time since the present difficulty commenced, and so far as my knowledge extends has remained entirely neutral.
    I have the honor to be
        very respectfully
            Your obt. srvt.
                A. A. Skinner
Gen. Joseph Lane,
     Commanding etc.


September 7th [1853]               
General Lane
    Dear sir day before yesterday the awful intelligence reached me of the death of my husband by the publication of one of your letters. Tomorrow morning Mr. Dunham, the bearer of this, starts to see if he can make arrangement to get men to go for the body of Mr. Armstrong against [sic--until?] my brother Dr. Smith arrives with the team. Dear sir, if you will please render some assistance by informing them where Mr. Armstrong was buried and assisting them to obtain men if more are necessary to make it safe. I shall be unspeakably obliged and you shall have the gratitude of my heart for your kindness. I also desire you to write me the particulars of my husband's death if you please, how long he lived and what he said. Give me all that is known in regard to it.
                    Jane Armstrong



Halstead Ferry Rogue River
    Sept 9th 1853
Gen. Joseph Lane Commander in Chief of Rogue River Forces
Sir
    Having according to orders left Jacksonville on the morning of the 4th Sept. after transacting all necessary business my command traveled to Applegate and encamped below the fort for the purpose of obtaining information of the whereabouts of the Indians of those occupying that position. After obtaining a guide we marched for a creek on which we supposed the Indians to be in force some 8 or 10 miles distant from the above-mentioned fort where we scouted from the afternoon [of the] 4th until the 7th inst. seeing plenty of fresh sign on the several creeks emptying on the west side of Applegate. And finally on the morning of the 7th we found where they crossed Applegate in [a] pretty large body. We pursued the sign and about noon came upon the Indians they having discovered us but were scattered so on the side of the mountain in the brush we could not charge them; however, in the evening we captured a prisoner known as "Jim Taylor," a notorious leader in the many depredations and murders perpetrated against our fellow citizens. The Indians discovering we had captured their tyee wish to "wah wah," but knowing their intentions I prudently sent no man for that purpose. The Indians were careful to keep in the brush on the mountainside. In the night they kept whooping and signal fires on the mountaintops but did not attack us.
    In the morning [of the] 8th the Indians came down partly on the mountainsides as if to attack. We attempted to draw them out but did not succeed. At 10 o'clock a.m. the Indians augmenting their forces I concluded to march out for Long's Ferry, not caring to risk a battle with the large force the Indians would have had by night--and the obstruction of our pack mules and prisoner. The pack mules we unfortunately had with us or I should have drove them from their position. On the evening of the 8th arrived at Long's Ferry, the Indians following us on the mountains.
    My object in going to Long's was to obtain more provision and dispose of the prisoner, which has been done today, 9th inst. From evidences which I obtained I concluded to have a trial in which it was proven he and party had killed Mungo and others beside numerous depredations; upon these evidences he was convicted and sentenced to be shot, which sentence was executed today by a detail of my command in a summary manner.
    I shall march tomorrow morning the 10th for the mountains on Applegate, where I hope to engage and rout them completely. The Indians are seen here frequently; a large number passed last night in canoes down the river--what their object is I do not know.
Yours respectfully
    R. L. Williams
        Rifle Rangers
P.S.  I thus have been precise in details so no wrong construction will be put on our proceedings.  R. L. M.



Jacksonville Sept 10th, 53               
Dear General
    Our march was brisk to this place, and we will leave for the mountains in the morning. I have got all the medicine I want except some quinine, which Drew will get from Dr. Gatliff of Yreka if he can raise the money as the Dr. is not willing to trust the government for pay. I find our hospital have nearly clear of sick and wound[ed] for which I am and every soldier and officer shouts be thankful to Dr. Cleveland for his untiring service and care.
    General, your old friend T'Vault is down and you I would like if I had time to give you a full description of our conversation, but have not time so I will refer you to Dr. Ambrose for particulars.
    Col. Alden is doing well.
    Permit to say you will ever have a friend in your svt.
        H. L. Evans
N.B.  Dr. Cleveland comes to camp and will dress your arm tonight and in the morning.




Scotts Valley Sept. 10th 1853               
Gen'l Lane
    Dear sir, Since my arrival at this place I have seen the chief of the Scotts River Indians and he informs me that there is a large body of the Rogue River Indians with old Tipsey on or about the head of Cottonwood sent and ordered to remain there by Old Joe, for if they showed themselves to the whites they would have to give up their arms. The Indians say that they know where they are and if necessary will pilot the whites to where they are.
Yours truly
    James Bruce



Jacksonville Sept 15th 1853               
Dear Genl.
    Since listening to the recital by Capt. Williams, in your presence, of the fight between his command and the Indians on Applegate Creek, I have heard and believe that it was an unprovoked attack on the family of Indian John by order of Capt. Williams, and in direct violation of your positive instructions to not interfere or do anything to interrupt the friendly relations then about to be and now fully consummated between the whites and Jo, Sam, Jim, John and Limpy's bands of Indians.
    It appears to me that Capt. Williams could not have been ignorant of the fact that this party of John's was a portion of those included among 200 people who were awaiting the return of John and his sons from the treaty ground preparatory to their removal to the reserve assigned them. John's uniformly good conduct towards the whites and the assurance he and his people gave us of their good and friendly intentions, and the circumstances by which we are now surrounded, I think demand an investigation of the conduct of Capt. Williams and his command, and as an act of justice to those people and to the end that peace may be preserved, I ask that Capt. Williams may be arrested and dealt with according to the rules and regulations of the army. It is at this time impossible to foresee the result of this unfortunate transaction, but as I have great confidence in the forbearance of those Indians and their great desire to preserve peace by carrying out on their part the stipulations of the treaty just concluded, I do not despair of being able to conciliate and to convince them of the sincerity of our intentions towards them.
    Your long acquaintance with these Indians and your better judgment will enable you to determine whether this act be such as to require the interference on your part for the arrest of those implicated.
    I have the honor to be
        dear sir your obedient
            servant
                Joel Palmer
                    Supt Indian Affairs
                        O T
Genl. Joseph Lane
    Commanding Forces   
        Oregon



Jacksonville, Sept. 18, 1853.       
    DEAR MADAM--It is with the deepest regret that I feel called upon to tender to you my heartfelt sympathy at the overwhelming loss you have recently sustained. Your husband [Pleasant Armstrong] was my friend, and one whom I highly esteemed. His loss was deeply deplored, not only by myself, but by the whole command, for none knew him but to love him.
    He fell like a gallant soldier, charging at the head of troops. When within thirty yards of the enemy's line, the fatal shot struck him in the center of the breast; he exclaimed, "They have given me a dead center shot," and immediately expired. By my orders his body was carried to the rear, and after the battle he was buried with the honors of war. May He who protects the widow and the fatherless give you strength to bear this deep affliction!
    I remain, madam, your sincere friend,
                                                                        JOS. LANE.
Mrs. Jane Armstrong.

Oregon Statesman, Salem, November 15, 1853, page 2




Treasury Department
    Comptroller's Office
        September 19th 1853.
John L. Wurts Esqr.
    Washington.
        Sir,
            You verbally asked me to state why the draft of the Hon. Joseph Lane, late Governor of Oregon, was not paid. He drew in your favor for $528.85, the amount due on account of his salary, under his late appointment.
    The 1st Auditor reported said sum to be his due per Report No. 112,769 September 15th 1853, which was approved in this office. There was found due to Governor Lane per Report No. 109,362 March 8th 1853 the sum of $1759.78 which he requested to have stand to his credit on the books of the Treasury, to apply on a balance against him on the books of the 2nd Auditor, if said balance should not be otherwise settled by him. In order to ascertain whether a balance still remained against him on the books of the 2nd Auditor, I addressed a letter on the 16th to said Auditor for information. On the same day he stated the balance on his books against Gov. Lane was
$7,175.02
Vouchers deposited to the amount of    3,909.32
$3,265.70
This balance against Gov. Lane exceeds the balance on the Treasury accounts in his favor       $1759.78 [+] $528.85 [=] $2,288.63
By      977.07
$3,265.70
The law requires the amounts so found due to Gov. Lane to be withheld and applied towards his indebtedness unless he discharges the same in some other manner.
Most sincerely
    Yours
        Elisha Whittlesey
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Marysville, Sept. 20th, 1853.       
Dear Sir:
    The difficulties with the Indians, I understand, are settled, and I sit down to congratulate you most heartily on your escape from the imminent dangers to which your life has been exposed. The news of the outbreak reached here the day after I returned from Winchester, and I heard at the same time that you had started to the seat of war. Knowing the daring courage of your nature--the almost recklessness with which you expose your person in the hour of battle--I felt great uneasiness on your account, and almost dreaded to hear any news from the scene of hostilities. You have escaped--escaped from perils greater than you passed through in Mexico--and with only a wound that has not endangered your life nor mutilated your person. Allow me to rejoice with your family that your life, so important to them at this time, has been saved to them and to your country, and that, instead of being cut off when their welfare and happiness depended so much on your preservation, you return to them with new honors, and new laurels, and a stronger hold than ever on the affections and confidence of the people of Oregon and of the whole country.
    I trust you will not consider these the cold congratulations of one who, while you were bravely periling your life for your country, preferred to remain snugly at home. It was not from choice that I remained, but from necessity. Although my eyes suffered greatly from my trip to Winchester, I determined to join you, and made great efforts to get a horse. But no one was willing to let a horse go on such a service, and the only one I could get was a wild colt that would have given me infinite trouble and perhaps broken my neck. Having no money I could not buy, and was thus compelled to forgo the credit and excitement of Indian warfare for the inglorious confinement of a village post office.
    I have been keeping the post office since my return, but shall give it up in a week or two, as it pays very little and I have made enough by my profession to pay expenses for a few months. I have made about two hundred dollars, but as business is limited I cannot promise myself such success hereafter. Two hundred dollars would be a considerable sum in the states, but here it will pay expenses only 15 or 20 weeks. However, that and what I may make by the clerkship of the council (should I be elected) will keep me afloat till something better offers. At least, I will use every exertion to make it answer.
    Mr. Avery has offered to secure for me the clerkship of the dist. court of this county, but I shall decline it, for the reason that Hovey, the incumbent, invited me to use his office when I come here and loaned me twenty dollars to go to Winchester. To displace him after such little kindnesses would have the appearance of ingratitude. I would not feel quite at ease if I should do so, although the office would be conferred on me without any solicitation whatever on my part. I would caution you against mentioning to Avery that this was my reason for declining, inasmuch as there is a bitter feud between him and Hovey, and he could not therefore appreciate my motives.
    One T. M. F. Patton passed through here a few days ago and was railing against you considerably for making a treaty with the Indians, and exhibiting a hole in his shirt which he said was made by an Indian bullet. We read in ancient history of Pisistratus, the Athenian, who cut and wounded his body to induce the belief that this violence was committed by his enemies, and having by this artifice obtained a guard for his person, overthrew the liberties of his country. Patton has improved upon Pisistratus, and instead of cuts and wounds upon his body, exhibits a bloodless hole in his shirt. What a miserable green-eyed reptile he is. I want to learn from you his conduct in the war, as I wish to take him off in the Statesman. The wretch and all others like him will find that when your military or civil conduct is assailed, you have friends whose voices and whose pens will soon place it in its true light. Miserable dunghills, whose martial ardor rises with the prospect of peace, and who become eager for the fray when the fight is over, can do but little damage to one who displays as much prudence and humanity in negotiations for peace as courage in braving the perils of the battlefield.
    You have doubtless heard before this time that Col. Gardner has been appointed Surveyor General of Oregon. This appointment disappoints Olney, and upsets our calculations with regard to the expected vacancy.
    Yours truly
        Samuel B. Garrett



General Joseph Lane
    Commanding etc.
        Robinson House
            Jacksonville
                Oregon


Camp [on Rogue River] one mile above Evans   
    22d Sept 1853   
Dear General
    Yesterday we met some six or seven Indians armed on this side of the river. I write you to let you know the fact that such is their custom. You think as I do (as you stated when I met you) that there is eminent danger of collision, if such a practice is persevered in, such is the feeling of the whites. Another thing occurred last night which the whites would not care about in ordinary times. A dozen or more Indians on the other side caroused the whole of last night in howling at a[n] Indian dance or war dance, or whatever they may call it. I do not write to add to your labors already arduous, but you are entitled to know the facts.
    Very sincerely and truly
        B. Alvord
            B. Major
General Joseph Lane, Commanding
    Robinson House
        Jacksonville
            Oreg.


Camp Lane OT
    Sept 24th 1853
General
    I have just received a note from Col. Wright in which he says "I am on my march for Jacksonville and shall reach there in 3 days." Think he will be in this morning or tomorrow morning, as his letter is dated 12 miles north of Yreka Sept. 22nd. I want you to come down and see my new fort, if I have the naming of it, it will be called Fort Lane, as you are particularly identified with this Rogue River war. I will be happy to see you and hope you may see Col. Wright at camp.
    Yours respectfully
        A. J. Smith
            Capt. Dragoons
Gen. Lane
    Jacksonville
        O.T.



Washington Butte P O Linn Co
    Sept the 26 53
Mr Joseph Lane
    Sir I take the liberty to ask your advice concerning claims that I have against the Rogue River Indians.
    They robbed me of fifteen hundred dollars and two horses with sundry articles of camp equipage the summer of 1849 as I was returning from California.
    I am in need of my money and wish to know if I can get it and if I can what is the legal course to be pursued.
    I asked the advice of a lawyer on the subject he said he could not tell what could be done without seeing you.
    So I concluded that the only sure way to obtain the information that I wanted would be to inquire of you.
    My account was made out against the Indians and testified to by John Meldrum in the latter part of the summer or fall after the robbery was committed. If I mistake not you was acting as Indian agent at that time.
    Please to answer as soon as convenient
        Yours respectfully
            Arthur Saltmarsh



Jacksonville O.T. Sept. 26th 1853
    Genl. Lane will please send me the government organ--and any other weekly he thinks proper--from the Patent Office any seeds and plants & roots that he may deem suitable to our soil & climate--also, any books, docts. or any other papers--which will be propagated and disseminated with the view to profit the largest and most useful class of the citizens of our Territory--the farmers--
    The "tree of heaven" [Ailanthus altissima] is a good ornamental one--and would be useful in Umpqua. The seeds can be had at the Patent Office--My folks brought from Louisiana the seeds of the beautiful China & catalpa tree, that I sent for specially, in order to provide our good people in Umpqua first--and "all the rest of mankind" in Oregon, with a most beautiful shade & flower, and owing to the rapid growth of the wood a highly beneficial one where timber is scarce--
    There are several other matters I could mention that would be practical and useful--and knowing the proven-up interest you take in our success generally--I will take the liberty at some future period of making some suggestions--
Believe me
    Your friend
        Edward Sheil
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Jacksonville O.T.
    Sept 28 '53
Hon. Commissioners of Military Affairs
Gentlemen
    In compliance with your request we have ascertained the amount of damages sustained by our citizens during the recent war as nearly correct as the circumstances and space of time would admit. The sum that you will see by our return amounts to $37,412.98. We have traveled over the greater part of the county and have witnessed personally nearly all of the accounts of which we return and are of the opinion they are correct and just. We have been governed by your instructions throughout and have affixed a cash valuation upon all articles as you will observe by a glance at our return. There are a few accounts which we return to you upon the best information we could get without their being qualified to. In all such cases we have designated them by marks, yet we believe they are correct and would recommend them to you for your favorable consideration. Also there may be a few accounts which have not come under our knowledge. If so in all such cases we hope you may take some measures to remunerate them for their losses.
    Gentlemen, with due regard for your kindness and attention, we now take our leave, having discharged the duties assigned us by you to the best our ability.
    With much respect we subscribe ourselves, yours respectfully,
    Geo. H. Ambrose
    John E. Ross
    W. W. Fowler



Headquarters Pacific Division
San Francisco Sept. 30, 1853
My Dear General
    I take great pleasure in returning you a printed copy of your most interesting account of the recent Indian war on Rogue River, the original of which I had the honor to receive two days since. This is the second time you have distinguished yourself in the Rogue River country, and now, as on the former occasion, you have most handsomely spoken of the regulars. Believe me, General, that although nothing less was expected from your sense of truth and justice, we feel it as an index of true magnanimity and in the name of my brother officers and particularly that of Maj. Kearny in the first case and of Capt. Alden in the recent instance I beg to tender you my most sincere acknowledgments.
    I need not say that your recommendation for establishing a post in the valley shall be attended to as soon as the means can be controlled. If Col. Wright should find himself able to make a post at Table Rock or its vicinity, I shall be much pleased--if not, I have asked for more troops from the East expressly for the purpose.
    Wishing you health and prosperity
        I am, dear sir,
            Very respectfully
                yr. obt. servt.
                    E. A. Hitchcock
                        Col. 2nd Infy. B. B. Genl.
Genl. Jos. Lane
    &c. &c.



Jacksonville Oct. 5th / 1853
Genl. Joseph Lane,
    Dear Sir,
        I forward you by Chas. Drew Esqr. dispatches & accounts to the Secty. of War, and Interior, to be placed in your charge in San Francisco, for their destination.
    The appraisers of property destroyed by Indians &c. have made their report--done their duty--and discharged--
    The commissioners of military affairs &c. have done what they believed right--received the encomiums of Genl. Lane, Col. Alden and the public & discharged by reason of their duties being accomplished.
    Peace and harmony prevails--
----
    Certain parties interested in our late difficulties believe that portions of their property stolen or destroyed by Indians will be returned--I have taken the liberty (without authority) to say that property so recovered could be deducted by me from their respective claims against government--and by this means diminish expense--and be satisfactory to all parties' concerns.
    Please consider the propriety of this course--as also--the proper person that may be appointed commissioner to settle up the whole affair--and let me know as soon as practicable.
    Owing to certain criminal charges preferred against L. A. Davis he was suspended by the commissioners until he would disprove said charges.which is promised to do--when I will report accordingly.
    What is to be done with U.S. property on hand, viz., beds, cots &c.
    Read my report to the Secty. of War.
Believe me your friend
    Edward Sheil
   
    L. A. Davis' case reconsidered; until we receive further testimony we restore him.
E.S.
   
    Last night James Kyle, a merchant of this place, in company with two others who were packing, camped near Willow Springs, were fired on by Indians, and Kyle wounded in the thigh and arm.
    Complaints from whites on Applegate that Indians enter their cabins and steal provisions--I have talked to the Ind. agent, as I done to you on the subject--and still think that all will go on well. This attack of last night though may alter the case. If so, I will apprise you of the facts.
Yours &c. E.S.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Jacksonville, 7th October 1853               
Genl. Jo Lane
    Dear Genl.,
    At the request of Major Drew, I write to inform you that, up to this time it has with the hardest work been impossible to settle and close up all the accounts of the quartermaster and commissary department.
    The muster rolls are all complete with the exception of such stoppages as must be entered on them for forage and subsistence furnished. This will be done at the earliest moment and the whole sent to the Adjutant General at Washington with a letter enclosed directed to you. Meanwhile the estimate, as near as it can be made, of the cost of forage, subsistence etc. is sent herewith enclosed, in order to give to you some information that may be desirable.
    The papers will all be ready and forwarded from San Francisco by the steamer of 1st November.
    I shall at Major Drew's request stay till these papers are all made out.
    The Indians since you left are quiet, and there is a respectable dragoon force here, Col. Wright having ordered the detachment of Lieut. Radford from Goose Lake on Klamath.
    Things will go well I think with regard to the Indians. Capt. Smith is in command of Fort Lane, which is being built rapidly.
    Very respectfully,
        Sir your most obedient servant
            James P. Goodall



Fort Jones Scotts Valley Calif
    October 10th, 1853
General
    A package of paper, from the Commissioners of Military Affairs in Rogue River Valley, Oregon was brought to me today by an express rider with a verbal request from the Commissioners that I should examine them and forward them to you at San Francisco.
    Unfortunately the regular express had left here before the arrival of the special express and as the latter will be compelled to overtake the former at Callaghan's tonight he leaves me but a few moments to examine the documents and communicate with you. If he should not arrive at Callaghan's in time the papers might fail to reach you before you sail from San Francisco on the 15th.
    These documents are addressed to the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Interior and to yourself. According to the verbal request of the Commissioners I have opened the envelopes and examined all the papers. I regret that I have but a few moments allowed me to submit my memorandum remarks on these documents.
    1st.  As it is a very unusual thing for an officer of the army to volunteer pecuniary assistance to the government, in order to relieve myself from misconstruction I ought perhaps to mention the circumstances under which this offer of mine was made.
    When I reached Jacksonville the 9th of August last, in order to give all the aid in my power towards the suppression of hostilities in Rogue River Valley, I found no public officer of the government, and no individual or organized board or committee with whom I could confer. No arrangement had been made for the temporary supply of volunteers with subsistence etc. Under the circumstances I informed the principal gentlemen of the town that I had no authority from the government to enroll volunteers and to pledge the government for their pay and subsistence, and that for this purpose a special appropriation would be required by Congress. I declared to them however that by personal observation I perceived clearly that a real war had broken out in the valley and that as they themselves had represented to me it was imminently threatened by at least 250 Indian warriors armed with rifles and well supplied with ammunition, that volunteers must be enrolled immediately and be supplied with subsistence and camp equipage, and that I had no doubt that Congress would make appropriation sufficient to cover all legitimate expenses of the war.
    I recommended that a committee of military affairs should be appointed forthwith composed of responsible men and having the confidence of the community and whose especial province it should be to raise funds and subsistence for the immediate wants of the volunteers. It was then intimated to me that as matters then stood the merchants of the town were unable to advance supplies and money the amount of which might not be refunded to them by the government for several years. I replied to them that the representations which had been made to me of the critical state of the valley threatened by a combination of several Indian tribes had not been exaggerated in the least, and that I was so well satisfied that Congress would make appropriations sufficient to meet all advances of funds etc. made by citizens in this emergency that I was willing to pledge myself to loan the committee one thousand dollars. I have since then been repeatedly informed by the principal men of the town that this offer on my part at once removed all hesitation on the part of merchants of the town to make advances.
    I was requested by the gentlemen of the town to nominate a board of commissioners. I made this nomination immediately from a list handed to me by the most responsible men of the place. This board consisted of Messrs. ____ ____. They entered upon their duties next day, and from that moment ample supplies were furnished to the troops. These commissioners were appointed by me on the 10th of August and continued in session until within a few days past.
    You are well aware of the value of their services.
    I perceive that the appraisers of property destroyed by the Indians do not appear to have signed their own names to the appraisement. I shall inform the commissioners of this fact and suggest to them to forward the proper signatures to you.
    In this appraisement account the appraisers do not make mention of the principle and manner by which they arrived at the amount of damages claimed by the parties.
    I regret that I have not a moment's time to say more as the express rider is compelled to start in five minutes. I will endeavor to write to you by the steamer that leaves San Francisco on the 1st of November. Perhaps I may leave for home in that steamer myself and in that case I shall go to Washington to meet you. My general health is improving, but the fingers of my right hand still refuse to hold a pen beyond the time required to sign my name.
    The muster rolls and subsistence accounts will not reach Washington I suppose before the 1st of December. I regret that the gentlemen have not been able to have them ready before this.
    With sincere regard
        Yours most truly
            My dear general
                B. R. Alden
                    Capt. 4th Infy.
General Joseph Lane
    San Francisco
        Cala.


Yreka Cal
    Octr. 17th, '53
Dear Genl:
    I am here on my way to Jacksonville, where my presence may be needed for the settlement of various accounts, and I make bold today to harness my fingers on trial with a pen. I am rejoiced to find that though my arm may never recover, yet my fingers as you perceive are doing well. Two days since it gave me great pain to write a line, but today a great change for the better has come in my nerves.
    I read your printed report yesterday for the first time and notice a word which would do me great discredit if it remains unexplained.
    You say that you were requested by "Col. Alden and the troops" to take the command. I did not notice this when Mr. Mosher showed me the manuscript, but certainly the request to relinquish the command to you came from myself alone.
    Will you please General to do what you can to correct this, and to save me from the misconstruction that would be put on it.
    The two Indians who killed Mr Kyle the other day in Rogue River Valley have been given up by Joe and Capt. Smith will hang them.
    My arm refuses to be used a moment longer.
    Yr. sincere friend
        B. R. Alden
            Capt. 4th Infy.
Genl. J. Lane
    Congress
        Washington
            D.C.


Salem O.T. October 21st 1853
Dear Genl.,
    The certain news of Deady's removal has just been received here. Everybody here regards it as a most damnable outrage, and that no time or pains should be spared to repair the wrong. I know that you must see the awkward situation in which it places Deady, and that your generosity, to say nothing of the justice of the thing will prompt you to see him put right.
    That accused crew of defunct federal officers who have been howling on his trail for the last two years are now congratulating themselves on his downfall. For your sake let their joy be brief!
    If you can find out which of Pierce's cabinet officers are mordant enough to place any reliance in the representations of Holbrook, for God's sake have him cut for the "simples." McFadden's appointment ought not to be confirmed, as he loses nothing having come out as mail agent at government expense; besides, if any man is to be sacrificed it should not be Deady. We shall look with great anxiety for the final of this matter.
    John & Lafayette are well and attending closely to their studies. Hurry up old Whittlesey about that money to defray the expenses of the courts and tell them that if they want to remove somebody in Oregon that don't care a damn, just to turn me out.
Your friend
    J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Jacksonville Oct. 21st 1853.
Genl. Joseph Lane,
    Dear Sir,
        In my last to you accompanying dispatches, I mentioned the wounding of Kyle of our town by Indians. Some five or six days afterward he died. The chiefs Sam, Jim & Joe assisted a few civilians in making prisoners of the two Indians who committed the murder; they will be tried at our Nov. term of the U.S. Dist. Court. It is said that there is another of the Shasta tribe implicated, but not yet found.
    Last Sunday evening Mooney's partner from Deer Creek, that empties into Rogue River some 45 or 50 miles from here, reported that Indians had set fire Dr. Smith's house (joining Mooney's claim) and in his attempt to extinguish it was fired on by the same Indians--some cattle stolen & others killed--with other thefts on Applegate Creek. These two affairs caused considerable alarm, and serious apprehensions of another commencement of hostilities, but thank our stars all is, at this date, peace, with a general feeling of security. Culver, Ind. agent, I am informed, made a visit to Dr. Smith, but of the result I know not--but feels certain of peaceful relations.
    Agreeable with your instructions, I wrote to Col. Alden in relation to a statement from him to the proper departments embracing his knowledge of the late war--the condition of affairs when he arrived--appointment of commissioners &c. &c. He (Col. Alden) arrived here today with the view of examining in person the result--appears pleased with the commissioners' course of action, and will aid and assist the quartermaster in finishing his accounts, which will be forwarded as soon (if not sooner) as Capt. Miller & company return from their benevolent mission to the emigrants.
    Capt. Miller returned for provisions some two weeks ago, and Lieutenant Abel George will leave tomorrow with another supply raised by subscription among us. They had a skirmish with the Indians, killed one & killed or wounded another. George had two of his men wounded. I fear, owing to the number of emigrants said to be on the road, that the company will not return for a month--
    Col. Alden proposes leaving here for Yreka Sunday evening next and will proceed to San Francisco and will be in Washington on the 16th of December. His health has improved much, but his right arm hangs to his side useless. He is popular with all--and I may add, justly merits it. He has strong hopes that satisfactory appropriations will be made--and will exert his influence to that effect--and if a commissioner or paymaster will be appointed, will recommend me--inasmuch as I have been intimate with the whole transaction from the beginning--may I claim your aid also?
    In the hurry of making dispatches, reports &c. to the departments, a copy of the report of the appraisers to [the] commissioners was forwarded by mistake to the Secty. of the Interior, instead of the original.
The paper with the signatures of the appraisers is enclosed--which please have substituted at the proper office, and the copy destroyed, or returned to me--
Very respectfully your friend
    Edward Sheil
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Lafayette [Oregon], Oct. 27th 1853
Genl. Lane
    By the last steamer the news reached this Territory of Judge Deady's removal. Judge Deady has resided in this vicinity since his arrival in Oregon in 1849. We have been personally acquainted with him in the meantime, both as a public man and a private citizen, and are glad to say that in both characters his conduct has met our unqualified approval. He has in that time been an earnest and uncompromising member of the Democratic Party, as well in the hour of its danger as in the period of its triumph since his appointment to the bench in Oregon. He has been under all circumstances at his post and discharged the duties of the office so far as we have been able to ascertain to the entire satisfaction of the people--under these circumstances we look upon his removal as an outrage not only upon Judge Deady, but upon the Democratic Party of this Territory who virtually endorsed his appointment in the overwhelming majority they gave its author for Delegate at the late June election. We earnestly desire you to spare no pains to have him early reinstated. Justice demands this and will be satisfied with nothing less. It is said here that the removal has been brought about through the representations made by Amory Holbrook to Gen. Cushing. We can hardly believe that the administration or any member of it could be influenced by information derived from such a source. If they have we can only say that they have been grossly imposed upon.
Your friends
    Andrew Shuck
    A. J. Hembree
    Joseph Watt
    Geo. H. Steward
    Stephen Shortess
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Fort Lane O.T.
    Oct. 29th 1853
Dear Gen
    I returned last evening from Illinois Creek. The Inds. have been stealing stock on and mar[red] that stream for some time. Capt. Smith and Lt. Radford [were] with me. But when we reached them we found that more force and provisions would be necessary and I sent back an express for more. In due time Lt. Castor arrived with a reinforcement. On the 23 we started into the mountains and on the 24th at noon we came to where my guides wanted us to stop that they might explore a little (these two guides belong to Tyee Jo['s] people). In a short time the guides returned and said they were satisfied that the Inds. were below on the creek
    Radford left a guard with the horses and went down the mountain with the command on foot. The guides took us down so as not to be observed. The men jumped into the water, swam across the water and [were] upon them so quick that they were completely surprised.
    The Inds. made three different stands though they were short. After the word was given "forward" the dragoons were stopped but rushed upon them and chased them until they reached the mountains. From 8 to 15 Inds. were killed; it was impossible to tell how many because the Inds. carried off all of their killed and wounded that they could.
    There was 20 soldiers in the fight, two were wounded. Just after we had commenced our action we were fired upon from the bushes and 2 men killed and 2 men wounded. We took 16 horses and one ox from the Inds. all of which they had stolen within six weeks.
    The Inds. that we found on Illinois Creek belong on the coast and were driven over at the time of the difficulty near Crescent City and they were stealing stock to take back with them. There was a party of 30 miners that went down to and attacked this same party of Inds. two days before but the Inds. whipped them.
    I know that none of the Inds. treated with were with them, for my two boys (guides) would not have fought their own people as they did these. Besides Tyee Jo wanted to take some of his men and go with us to fight them and again we took everything in possession of the Inds. even to cans of powder, balls, caps, etc. and if any of these Inds. were with them we would have taken something that we would have recognized.
    It is very cold in the open air this morning. I can hardly hold my pen. The fort is nearly completed; will get into it in four or five days.
    Respectfully
        Yours
            S. H. Culver
Gen Jo Lane Delegate etc.
    Washington D C
    Capt. Smith has just come down from the new fort and says give my compliments to the Gen., say that I will write to him in a few days. He hopes you will not forget what you promised in case a new regiment is raised etc.    S H C




Salem O.T. Nov. 22nd 1853
Dear Genl.:
    Your kind letter of Oct. 31st from San Francisco was received yesterday, and I hasten to reply. The boys are both well and doing well. Lafayette is stopping with Mrs. Bears and John with me, where I suppose he will remain, that is if my wife's health will permit. She is at present troubled with that old complaint incident to the ladies who are well cared for, viz., a rising in the stomach.
    I have purchased all the necessary clothing, books &c. for the boys. Their bills up to this time including board, clothing, books, tuition &c. amounts to about $155.00. For the ensuing quarter I suppose the expenses will be about $195.00. It will require about $350.00 to pay all their expenses up to the first of March. This estimate may be a little above or a little below the sum actually required. I manage for them as economically as I would if they were my own boys. I purchase for them comfortable, plain, substantial clothing, and endeavor to avoid unnecessary expense.
    John I think manifests some traits of his father's character, inasmuch as he appears a little disposed to run about of nights, but poor boy he should not be blamed for a trait which he has so honestly inherited. We as you know have "started preaching" here, and it is my constant care to see that your sons attend divine service with me every sabbath. So you have nothing to fear for their temporal or spiritual welfare.
    I am inclined to think that you laid on the "soap" tolerably thick in your San Francisco letter. However, you should perhaps be pardoned for dispensing with a bountiful hand the article which nature has so abundantly supplied you with. I have a very fair prospect of losing the ten thousand dollars due me on the sale of my mills, as my successors are doing badly; however I shall watch as well as pray. My going to the States in the spring will depend very much upon my success in collecting that debt.
    You perhaps recollect that conversation which we had about your procuring my appointment as one of the visiting committee to West Point at the graduation in June next. If I can get the appointment and it will pay expenses I will visit the States in the spring. I can do that without neglecting the duties of my office by leaving here after the spring term if the courts are holden and return in the fall. This would afford me a fine opportunity to see my friends, Washington and the Lions. Fourteen long years of toil, hardship and privation have elapsed since I have seen my friends in the States, and now I hardly feel able to do so unless I can do something to pay the expenses of the trip. You can ascertain about this matter and let me know in time.
    I have not received a single dollar as yet from the department to defray the expenses of the courts. If old Whittlesey don't send some soon I shall send him my commission and tell him to go to hell with his ducks.
    Judge McFadden is loafing about town here in place of going out South to hold the fall term of the courts as he should do. He is quite a pet among the Whigs and appears shy of the Indians. The people South are raising the devil about Deady's removal, and the neglect of his successor to hold the courts. McF. looks as sage as an owl, while Bush is beginning to stir him up with a long pole. That removal of Deady was a most damnable outrage, not only on him but on the party here, and your friends all look to you to see the matter rectified.
    It is now a-raining great guns, "Hell afloat and the river a-rising," and from the way it has set in we have a fair prospect for a moist winter.
    The legislature commences its session in a few days, when we hope to see things brighten up a little. I shall annoy you occasionally with an epistle during the winter.
    I have perhaps bored you deep enough with this, and as it is bedtime will bid you good night.
J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Jacksonville Novr. 26, 1853
Dear General
    I write to you at the request of Clugage and nearly all of the principal men of the place to ask of you to urge the appointment of Bob Metcalfe as special Indian agent for the valley. One thing has become quite evident, that Culver is totally incompetent for the position, and we run a great risk every day that he remains here. I need not tell you what Bob's qualifications are. You know them well, and every man in the valley I believe desires his appointment.
    The chiefs are still disposed for peace, but the Indians are likely to become troublesome unless a proper course is pursued with them. Since you left two Indians shot Kyle (the partner of Wills who was killed before), and through the assistance of Tyee Jim the murderers were captured, but have not yet been tried. Tipsy Tyee is still on this side of Siskiyou Mountains with his men scattered in small bands from the Mountain House down about fourteen miles, and are continually stealing horses and whatever else they can lay their hands on. Old John's tillicums have the most of them gone back to Applegate very saucy, stealing and fishing. Two Indians a day or two ago, coming from Old Joe's camp to Applegate, stole two rifles and some blankets from a miner's camp on Jackson Creek about two miles from town. No assistance can in any case be had of the agent, who is I believe engaged in prospecting for gold. Bob went over and made the Indians give the guns and five horses. The result of all this will be that when the snow comes, people who have had their property stolen will go out and kill every poor devil of an Indian that they can catch, and the devil will be to pay. There is only about forty soldiers at Ft. Lane, and will soon be less. I have sent to Col. Manypenny a recommendation signed as you will see by the best men here. For God's sake, attend to this as soon as possible.
    Maj. Drew will be in Washington in two or three weeks. All your friends are well. Capt. Goodall is here talking so fast that I can hardly tell what I am writing about.
    I am engaged in mining and doing pretty well. Write to me as soon as you can.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. F. Mosher
   
P.S. If they raise any new regiments and there is likely to be a war with Mexico, get me an appointment as Captain.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Salem Oregon December 3rd 1853
Dear Genl.,
    I wrote you by the last mail giving you some account of how the boys were getting along, together with an estimate of about what would be required to defray their expenses during the winter.
    Since I wrote that letter the quarter has expired and "Christ's" folks have been very anxious about Lafayette's board bill. I borrowed the money and paid the bills. It would perhaps be well for you to forward funds as soon as convenient, as I find myself exceedingly embarrassed for ready means, which is owing to the fact that it is next to impossible to collect money due me, besides I have been compelled to advance my own means to pay the expense of the United States courts here without having received one damned cent in return. I have been forced to do this owing to the neglect of Meek to pay any of the debts contracted by him; consequently the credit of Uncle Sam is at a devilish low ebb here; in fact the old gentleman could not get "drinks" here on credit. I cannot nor will not stand that much longer, as the mere honor of the Marshal's office is not worth the amount necessary to defray the expenses of the courts, and if Mr. Pierce and his cabinet think for a moment that I am agoing to pay fifteen thousand dollars a year for such honor they are badly fooled. In short, if I do not receive funds from the department in a reasonable time after your arrival at Washington I shall return my commission to Mr. Pierce with the recommendation that he appoint some man to the office who has more money than I had.
    Gov. Davis arrived here last night and I understand brought on the building fund. I like his appearance, and it is generally thought here that he will do. There is much complaint here about Gardner, the new surveyor genl.; the people who deal with him say it is true that he don't take fees as Preston did, and besides that he won't do the business of the office, and that Preston has established an office across the way--that the surv. genl. sends all applicants to Preston to have their papers made out and that it now costs twice as much to prove up as it did before. Christ, I begin to trouble for my own morals when I see what a proclivity public men have for "stealing." I hope that the box of capsules which Bush sent arrived safe, as I am told that Washington is extremely unhealthy.
    The members of the legislature are beginning to come in, and I suppose will fire away next week. The town is crowded with applicants for clerkships, and I think that after the House is fairly organized the price of "sawing wood" will come down, as many of them will be compelled to resort to that profession.
    I think that your successors Guthrie & Farrar will blow out at the touch hole. The credit of the firm is growing beautifully less. I learned Nat as agent for the company [omission] last year thirteen hundred dollars, which I understand that G. [&] F. had undertaken to pay, but they have not done it, neither do I believe they will as they appear to be entirely destitute of means. I have offered to discount my diamond, owing to my great want of money, but can't even get a part of it when I ought to have the whole.
    I think that your sale of mill property is a little like mine, cultus. I have written across the face of the notes that I took from my purchasers "Slipped up for $10,000." You had better do likewise with yours and save trouble.
    The boys are well and I think learning something.
    I shall write you occasionally when I feel like it--you can do as  you please about answering.
Your friend
    J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Salem Oregon December 6th 1853
Dear Genl.,
    Enclosed you will find a communication to the Secretary of the Interior which I have to request that you will be kind enough to present to that department and urge immediate action on the same. By reference to the 2nd section of the act of Congress of Feb. 26th 1853 you will observe that I am confined to the expenditure of fifty dollars for room rent and twenty dollars for furniture for the use of the U. States district courts in Oregon, but it is left discretionary with the Secretary of the Interior to make the necessary allowance for such purposes.
    The restrictions of fifty and twenty dollars are all very well so far as the districts in the States are concerned, where there are perhaps but two or three terms in each district in each year, and all those at some one particular place where public buildings can be had free of rent. But you must recollect, and I hope will try to impress it upon the Secretary, understandably that Oregon is differently situated--that we have thirty-three regular terms of the court provided for by law, and that those thirty-three terms are scattered about through the twelve counties of this Territory. You can have some idea how far fifty dollars for room rent and twenty dollars for furniture would serve for such purposes in Oregon.
    I have before tried to urge this matter upon the consideration of the Secretary of the Interior, but I find it exceedingly difficult to make any of the department understand our real situation here, and as you have had some experience in embarrassments of a similar nature here and are now on the ground, I trust that you will devote a few moments to having the matter rectified.
    You will see in the Statesman an account of the organization of the legislature. Your friend Garrett is chief clerk of the council.
In haste I rem.
    Sincerely your friend
        J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Fort Lane O.T.
    Dec 8th 1853.
My Dear Gen
    I have just returned this morning from Illinois Creek where I have been for the last ten days. I gave you a brief history of what occurred when the dragoons went there with me on a former occasion, to wit: that they had a battle. The result is as I expected; a peace is established that is likely to stand. When we went there I knew that those Inds. had then in their possession from 15 to 20 horses which they had stolen during the war, that if I and the dragoons should have it in our power to take them and not do it it would have raised a great talk and would have been used as an argument against treaties etc. At the time that I returned from the mountains (from the fight) I told the miners that they might fight them as long as they pleased, that I would not interfere, but when they were satisfied and wanted to stop to let [me] know and I would get them in some way and make a treaty with them. Those miners find that fighting Indians does not pay and are now anxious to keep peace and the Inds. are of the same mind. I have been a long distance down Illinois Creek with our Indian boy and myself and saw all of the Inds. that belong there. Peace is established.
    The two Indians that were given up as the murderers of Mr. Kyle made their escape from the guard on the morning that I left for Illinois Creek. I went to Jo and Sam at once; they both say that they shall be found and delivered up which will be done. They want peace.
    Now one word which relates to me personally. A friend told me as I came through Jacksonville this afternoon that he had heard that there was a petition in circulation having for its object my removal and Bob Metcalfe's appointment in my place. Whether there are any reasons assigned or not I cannot tell, probably not, for there are none. This is the long and short of it. Deady has been removed and it is supposed by Whig influence or rather Whig slanders. This is delightful to Whigs and they propose to continue the thing and get such persons appointed as pleases them. I have done everything in my power to preserve peace and to perform whatever duties were incumbent upon me as agent and have been successful.
    But some certain Whigs who have not deemed it expedient to come out openly against you, though they had the dead thing on you when they saw the first effects of the treaty, in other words they thought it would seriously affect your popularity. They are disappointed in it and they know the reason. Without taking too much to myself I think I may safely say that I have contributed more than any other person here to bringing about this state of things. I have in my travels stayed overnight or called at nearly every house in the valley and taken occasion to correct many wrong impressions entertained by citizens, and honestly too, about the late treaty of peace made by you.
    One instance I found whole neighborhoods laboring under the impression that you gave the Indians several thousand dollars worth of clothing if they would come in and stop fighting and that you did so give the goods for that purpose and that the Inds. would not come in and make peace unless you paid them for it. This is but one of a number, all of which are equally as absurd. These have all been corrected or nearly so and were the question put to the people of this county tomorrow whether they approve your course in making that treaty it would be sustained by a large majority, but no thanks to the Whigs, no not one of them, particularly those in and near Jacksonville.
    But enough of this. The only thing that has induced me to say anything about this reported petition is that I am fearful that some one-sided statement might be made, for if persons will get up a secret petition they may not be above making statements that are at variance with truth.
    I shall start down the river in the morning to try to get the two prisoners that escaped just before I started to the Illinois River and shall succeed before I stop.
    Respectfully your
        obt. srvt.
            S. H. Culver
Gen Jo Lane
    Delegate in Congress
        Washington D.C.


/ 53
    Dec. 9th
Dear Father
    You must excuse me for not writing to you before. I have been very busy ever since this session took up and cannot get time to write to you, only of Saturday. Mr. Martin came down and he says that all of the family is well. You must go to Indiana when the first session is out and see all of the people there. I have received only one letter from there since I have been here. I heard from Mary the other day. She is well; all of the folks is well there. You could not get me to live in Indiana for anything. Judge McFadden
has come up here and is liked very much. The Governor has arrived here; we saluted him when he came in on the steamboat. I think that you had best buy some lots in Salem and none down here, for it is the prettiest place in Oregon that I have seen.
    Lafayette is a-learning very fast. I think he studies very hard. You had better send money as soon as you can, for Mrs. Bears [sic] had me to pay her to the amt. of $46. I had to borrow it and got Mr. Nesmith to get it for me. I have not had any chance to send to Portland. I thought that you made arrangements with her. I told Lafayette to tell her that I had no money and could not get any until you could get to Washington or somebody would go to Portland and she sent word to me that she must have it so I got Mr. Nesmith to get money for me.
    I like Mr. Hoyt
very much; he tries to make me learn. I speak every Friday. I want you to send me the Drawing Room Companion and The Flag of Our Union. Legislature has met. Garrett is clerk of the council; John McCracken is the clerk of the legislature.
    I think that if I study here as I have been until you get back then I can go to studying law. Mr. Garrett has made a poor start here; he has lost every case that he's had except 2. We have a debating society here;
Mr. Hoyt is president. Umpqua is so wild a country that I wish Mother was down here. You must write soon.
    I am a-studying arithmetic, philosophy, grammar, reading & bookkeeping is all that I am a-studying at present. I entered astronomy next session and algebra.
   

Dear Father, I have a friend here that wants to go to West Point, and I want you to send me a copy of the regulations and the qualifications necessary for cadet. He wants to know what he had better do to get the appointment. His name [is] Roswell Lamson. Send them as soon as possible. Send them to me. Don't fail.
Your son John S. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Washington City
    December 10 1853
William Cose Dusenberry Esqr.
    Wall Street, N. York
        Sir
            I have in my possession one hundred dollars, placed in my hands by E. Hamilton Esqr. of Oregon for you, which will be forwarded promptly upon your order. Have the kindness to address me.
    It was my intention to see you in N.Y. and hand you the money, but had mislaid a slip of paper handed me by Mr. H. with your address and could not recollect the name; have this day found it. This is my apology for not doing as otherwise I would.
Respectfully yours
    Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Ho. of Reps.
    Washington Dec. 12th 1853
Hon. E. Whittlesey
    Comptroller &c.
        Sir;
            You will please favor me at your earliest convenience with a tabular statement of appropriations made by Congress for the Territory of Oregon since its organization as a Territory, showing for what purposes the same were made, what amount actually paid out, for what purpose, and what amount withheld and for what reason, together with the sums of each appropriation yet remaining in the Treasury.
And oblige
    Yours respectfully
        Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Jacksonville
    Oregon Territory
        21st Decr 1853
Gen Jo Lane
    Dr Sir
        I have just got through and am sealing up the papers for transmittal to Washington.
    They are all directed to you and amount to $93,511.25 cents, which is not far I believe from the estimate sent to you at San Francisco.
    I have to say that since closing the accounts, a bill was presented by Levi Libby for $200 for transportation. This bill is sent, but is necessarily detached from the rest and swells the amount of expenses to $200 more, making $95,511.25 cents [sic].
    Enclosed is a letter to Hon. P. H. Bell, of Texas; he is my friend and I think you can rely on his cooperation in this matter.
    Capt. Terry it seems has sent on an independent muster roll. I frequently hear his men speak of him and with execration. They do not approve [of] his conduct. You will doubtless see his roll, and will act as in your wisdom shall be deemed best. His men are as anxious as the rest to get pay, and I recommend it.
    Your letter to me directing copies of muster rolls to be sent to the governor of Oregon was obeyed. If your avocations permit I should be glad to hear from you occasionally.
Your friend
    James P. Goodall
P.S. The rolls made and sent by me asking pay are
1st   Your staff roll
2nd  Roll of hired men in hospital
3       Roll of hired quartermaster men
4       Miller's roll of mounted volunteers
5
       Goodall's roll of mounted volunteers
6
       Lamerick's roll of mounted volunteers
7
       Rhoades' roll of mounted volunteers
8
       Williams' roll of mounted volunteers
9
       Owens' roll of mounted volunteers
10
     Fowler's infantry volunteers
    And the rolls of Capts. Terry, Martin and Nesmith, which doubtless are or will be sent.
Respectfully etc.
    J. P. Goodall
To
    Hon. Jo Lane
        Washington D.C.



Ho. of Reps.
    Washington D.C.
        Dec. 29th 1853
Hon. John Wilson
    Comm. of Land Office
        Sir;
            I learn that it has been the practice of the Surveyor General of Oregon to exact fees of settlers for services rendered in proof of claims and in rendering certificates of settlement and cultivation. Do not these duties devolve upon the Surveyor General by virtue of his office for which he is remunerated by the salary thereof and are not such charges therefore illegal and contrary to the contemplation of the act creating the office of Surveyor General?
    Your early replication is respectfully solicited.
Very respty.
    Your obt. servt.
        [Joseph Lane]
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Randolph City Coquille Mines
    Jan'y 28th 1854
Gen. Joel Palmer
Supdt. Indian Affairs
Sir
    At a meeting of the citizens and miners held today in this place, the undersigned were appointed a committee to address you upon the subject of our relations with the Indians of this vicinity. The Indians have at different times warned the people resident here that if they did not leave they would compel them to or kill them. Yesterday the chief of the tribe located at the mouth of the Coquille River fired upon some whites located at that point. When requested by a messenger from the Indian agent at Port Orford to come in and have a talk, he refused to do so, stating in distinct terms that he was an enemy to the whites, that he always would be an enemy, and that he wanted to fight and kill all the whites. The people seeing that the Indians were determined to put their threats into execution, a few men proceeded early this morning to their rancheria and were fired upon by the Indians, which fire they returned, and in the engagement fifteen Indians were killed, and two squaws (who were killed by accident). The whites then burnt their rancheria. In the engagement the chief was wounded, being shot through his shoulder.
    Eight squaws were taken prisoners.
    Later in the day the chief surrendered and came in. He professes friendship and says he is sorry he was hostile to the whites and promises to behave better in the future. How long his good behavior will last is uncertain.
    All of which is respectfully submitted
John C. Danford
B. I. Burns
J. E. McClure
Wm. J. Berry
B. J. Bell



Salem Oregon Feb. 7th 1854
Dear Genl.,
    Yesterday's mail brought the news of your arrival at Washington. We were disappointed in not receiving any further news from you. The boys are both well. John is still with me and Lafayette at Mrs. Bearses. I have paid their bills so far.
    Bush leaves this steamer for the States. I had intended going with him but have been disappointed in money matters. I have spent all my own in paying the expenses of the courts and have not received a dollar from the department. I received a letter last night from Mr. Whittlesey saying that he had written to the Secretary of the Interior recommending him to send some $15,000, but not a damned cent came.
    My demand for money loaned to the Oregon Milling Company amounts to about $1300, and I am unable to get one cent of it. Nat ought to have paid it but refers me to Farrar & Guthrie, and they either won't or can't pay. Bullheaded stupidity. Guthrie called on me this morning about the matter and said the delay in its payment was attributed to the delay in receiving remittances from the United States, but when I told him that all that could be obviated by giving me a draft on the States, as I was anxious to go it would suit me better than the money, but instead of giving me the draft he insulted me by saying that he was in no hurry, and that anything I could do would not hasten the payment. I regard him as a damned turd head who has no funds in the States nor anywhere else but expects to cut a figure here on his uncle's reputation, but he will find [illegible] in Oregon as well as New York. It is provoking to be treated in this way after having made preparations to go to the States. If Guthrie & Farrar were responsible to me I would serve them immediately, but my notes are against the old milling company, and I believe that I shall bring suit against Nat and so bring the matter to an issue at once.
    The legislature have memorialized Congress to so amend the land law as to allow persons who have resided their four years and obtained their certificates to make sales of and give title to their lands as a part thereof. The restrictions should never have been in the law, and it now ought to be removed. Many persons who do not want an entire section are desirous of selling a part but are restrained by the law from so doing. Others would prefer on arriving here to purchase lands in the settlements to going back by which means the country would be more densely populated and greater facilities afforded for schools. The greatest inconvenience perhaps is felt in the towns where as you know it is impossible for a mechanic or professional man to obtain a title to a single foot. This same class of persons by their occupations are precluded from taking claims by the necessity of their following their occupations. The consequence is that government refuses to give them land (without their residing upon it, which is impracticable) but has adopted such a narrow and restrictive policy as to preclude the possibility of their purchasing a lot to reside upon. The government can certainly lose nothing by the change of the law, as the four years' residence and cultivation is what the land is given for, and after the terms prescribed by the government are complied with I cannot see how it is for her interest to compel the original settler to still hold on until patent issues before he can make any disposition of what is already his own.
    If the land is given for the four years' residence and cultivation, then when that is done the title ought to rest in the donee without his being compelled to wait until the damned slow machinery of the federal government can find time to grind out a "patent" which after all is no title, but mere evidence of it.
    This is a question in which every man in Oregon is interested, as all wish to either buy or sell. And you cannot accomplish any measure which will command the gratitude of your constituents more than this.
    Wilson informs me that he has sent you the account of the code commissioners, and I trust it will be paid speedily. If it is unauthorized by any law now in force I presume Congress will not hesitate to authorize its payment.
    I shall come on to Washington as soon as Farrar & Guthrie pay me the funds necessary to pay my passage, which I think probably will be somewhere between the day of judgment and the time when Hell freeze overs.
    We have an increase in the family in the shape of another double-barreled boy.
In haste I rem.
    Your friend
        J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Jacksonville Sunday Feb. 12, [1854]
Dear General
    Having just come to town from my claim [paper loss] bye. I am doing very well. I think I shall [paper loss] I take occasion to drop you a [paper loss] of this country [paper loss] between [paper loss] Siskiyou & Trinity [paper loss] are determined [paper loss] a new territory where the elect of God's people may congregate. We have had a convention, the proceedings of which I shall send you, and adjourned to meet here on the 17th April next. Squire Steele, Ned Curtis & myself are the committee to memorialize Congress on the subject. The people are unanimous on the subject within the boundaries of the new territory, and no mistake. I hope you will help us. You may expect any return you ask for the favor. I never spoke to you on the subject, but Steele tells me you are with us.
    The new Judge McFadden has arrived and held a court. He convicted three Indians & they have been hung. [paper loss] shot Jim Kyle and the one that killed [paper loss] last, confessed that he killed Wills & Nolan. [paper loss] intends to take a claim in the valley and [paper loss] opinions from everybody. He appears to [paper loss] of yours--all right.
    [paper loss] I hope [paper loss] got Bob appointed special agent--Culver is a B.F.
    Jones who used to be in the Times office and myself are going to start a weekly paper [in this] place; the first number will appear about the [paper loss] of May. The paper will be neutral in politics [paper loss] Whenever the new territory is formed [paper loss] support it, it [will then be a] Democratic [paper.]
    Any government [paper loss] thankfully [paper loss]
    Will you [be kind] enough to [send] [paper loss] of the last session and anything else interesting.
    Having told you all the news of interest, and I will return to camp.
I remain
    Yours ever
        L. F. Mosher
PLEASE WRITE.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Salem Oregon Feb. 20th 1854
Dear Genl.,
    Yours of December 13th came to hand by last mail. The $200 I have applied as far as it goes to the payment of the boys' expenses; it pays about one half of their expenses up to the present time. They are both well and I think making some progress in their studies. As we have "started preaching" here they both have the benefit of my pious example and attend divine doings with me--seldom.
    You must have been mistaken in what the Secretary of the Interior told you about sending me the $15,000, or else he as old Whittlesey have lied like Hell. Whittlesey wrote me that he had advised the Secretary of the Interior to send me the $15,000, and last mail I received $8500, accompanied by a letter from Mr. Secretary in which he says that "the Comptroller of the Treasury advised him to send me but $8500," a sum but sufficient to pay one half of the overage now due, without leaving me a damned cent to defray the expenses of this spring term about to be holden and leave me six months, and perhaps six years, before I will get any more.
    I can't understand why the department is so damned parsimonious with their money. They know that the expenses here must be paid. I have given them a good bond for $20,000, and can't see why I can't be furnished with funds. I have written to old Whittlesey by this mail, giving him to understand that he might either forward them or stick the office in his damned old arse.
    We poor devils out here think that we are not so far removed from the confines of civilization but what we have a right to our opinion on national affairs, and while I fear and regret the fact, yet I cannot help believing that your friend "French" and his pot-headed Kentucky secretary had given the party a blow from which it will take it years to recover. I suppose "there is a tide in the affairs" of parties, as well as men, which taken at its flood leads to--Hell. I think that Mr. Guthrie packed out his frail bark just in time for the full benefit of the current. He has but few sympathizers here unless they be with such customers as the editor of the "Weakly Times." The "Durhamites" are all hard as the hardest. Our sympathies being with Bronson and believing that Mr. Guthrie's interference in N. York politics would have been entirely [illegible], even if his aim had of been higher than to reward
a pack of damned abolitionist traitors, who were allowed onto the Democratic platform by the hope of sharing the spoils. It is a poor policy to reward the traitor at the expense of your friend. Mr. Guthrie should organize a new party out of all the old remnants, and adopt for a platform "victory and the spoils" and never inquire about the antecedents of those who call for a share. In short it is all damned poppycock to talk about Free Soilers and abolitionists standing on the Baltimore platform, and if accidentally found there it is proof positive that they are corrupt and dishonest, and they should [be] kicked off.
    I like Gov. Davis very well, but suspect that he is a little on the "soft" order. How is it?
    If the department should take me at my word in my Whittlesey letter and conclude to dispense with my services, I would recommend for my successor your old and tried friend Samuel Parker. He is as damned a fool as I know of, besides being a Guthrieite. He was my competitor for the office, but "E.C.H." wrote on the back of his application "An old granny--not fit."
    So you have got old "basaltic"
Lancaster for a colleague from Washington Territory. I would much rather had seen Wallace the Whig elected, then the administration could not have been imposed upon. But the "one horse councilman" will go to Washington "on the Democratic platform" and under the guise of Democracy be a vehicle through which all the Softs, no-party men, disaffected Democrats and dishonest Whigs of Oregon will operate and flourish. I will bet you two gallons of buttermilk that the next Delegate from Washington Territory will be a Whig--and I don't care a damn. But it is late, and I am boring you. I shan't expect you to gone to the trouble of answering my letters, and as they will not be very edifying to posterity I would recommend you to make firewood of them--good night.
Your friend
    J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Portland 26th Feby. [1854]
Genl. Joseph Lane
    Dear Sir, Yours of Dec. 15th is to hand containing draft for five hundred & twenty-five dollars.
    Have written to Doctor Evans of the fact, has not called yet for the money. By the same mail [received] letter to Nat containing four hundred and fifty dollars with which I lifted your note held by Pomeroy for four hundred and forty dollars & interest, will send the note to Simon as per instructions, first time I write him.
    Well, sir, in reference to Oregon and the facilities for money making let me assure you from my limited exp
erience that any place, yes, any place is better than this. I commenced business here in the spring, during which time summer and fall made money not unusually fast, about same as could have done in the States; business so continued up to the first December. Since that time on, which will probably continue until first May, have not been making my expenses. Never saw such business in any country, and a more disagreeable winter, god knows I never saw rain, snow, hail, sleet, stormy weather, river froze over for two or three weeks in succession, mud knee deep all over the face of the county. As you are aware took Nat in copartnership with me soon after you left. He stood our ill luck up to the first Feby., at which time withdrawed from the firm. Himself and Commodore have gone to the mines at Port Orford; have not heard from them since they left. The ill fortune of dull business has not only fallen upon us but every business man in the Territory. The cry is no money, and how can it be otherwise; thousands upon thousands of dollars leaves the country every steamer, and what is to bring it back. Nothing. I trust in god that I may have a better trade this summer than am now the recipient of, and if business should ever spring up then I will certainly sell out for god knows I should be happy to have my money out of my business, am perfectly satisfied with trade in Oregon. A six months' business in twelve will not try me.
    Have not heard from Umpqua for three months; do not know the cause, unless roads being impassable.
    In regard to the general news of Oregon [I] presume Bush has posted you up; nothing of interest has transpired since he left. Lancaster, Delegate-elect from Washington T., will leave on next steamer. Have two steamers running to this point, each are crowded with people every trip, leaving Oregon, very few coming, many come up and return on same boat. This is a dark, gloomy, dreary and muddy-looking portion of god's moral vineyard. We are all in good health; Winnie goes to school whenever she can get there for rain and mud; her session will be out in a few days. Have you made any inquiries in regard to insurance, should like to be insured from fire for ten or twelve months by that time, hope to have my money in my pocket, say for about eight thousand dollars. If the companies will take any risks here I know you can get it effected. Will you be so good as to make the effort.
    Letters from you will be very thankfully received as often as you may find leisure to write us.
    Mary and Winnie wishes to be remembered by you.
Yours truly
    A. D. Shelby
   
N.B. The little tow boat Firefly was wrecked at the mouth [of the] river, crew all lost, amongst them Capt. Hawkes.
A.D.S.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Portland
    February 27, 1854
Dear Pa
    I received your letter the 16 and 27 of Dec. and was glad to hear from you. I am agoing to school but my school will be out in two weeks, but will take up soon. When I last heard from home the family was enjoying good health. As for Mary and myself we both have a bad cold but that [is] nothing.
    Nat is at Port Orford, but we expect that he will return this steamer. His family is well. We have had some very cold weather. The river was froze over for two weeks so persons could cross with wagons. I wrote to Mrs. Wirt the other day. Fayette and John is well. Give my love to Mrs. Wirt and family. Your tillicum is well and growing fine and is much obliged to you for that beautiful name. Give my respect to Mrs. Easby and daughter. I have nothing more. At present I am much obliged to you for those presents.
Winnie
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.



Winchester O.T.
    February 25 1854
Dear Father
    This day I recd. your letter containing the check for 675 dollars in favor of D. Barnes, which I handed him and redeemed your note of 725 dollars.
    I settled with Wm. J. Martin. His acct. against you was 706 dollars, including the store house, and our bill against him for goods was 211 dollars. The burrs you sold him was 397 dollars, which leaves a balance due Martin 92 dollars. I told Mr. Martin I hoped that this settlement would be satisfaction to you, and he said he knew it would be, for you and him had a talk about the burrs and you agreed to pay for repairing them, which cost $152, but he would pay half and charge you only $75. See enclosed bills.
    That note you give Knott for 1500 dollars he sold to Sutherland. We have paid 1000 dollars on it, and the 500 we will pay the first of March. Then we will owe 450 dollars, and about the same owing to us, and I think we have in store about $2500 worth of goods. Times are quite dull in Winchester at present, money very scarce, [a] good many people going to the gold mines from Douglas County. There is a great excitement about the Coos mines; people are going there from all parts of Oregon. John & Russell Fickas are gone to Coos; Simon paid them off. Their wages were $450. I am well pleased with Oregon. I bought of Mr. Akin the house brother Wilbur occupied. The house cost $450. I paid 200, the balance [due] next May. I moved to Winchester the 10th Nov.
    Since that time we have sold 4300 dollars worth of goods, but we have to sell goods at a very small profit owing to so much competition. This county has a great many stores and grocers that we have to contend with; consequently we have to sell goods cheap in order to gain custom.
    All of your American cows has calves. Mother and family are very well. Emily and little Mary are well and send their very best love to you.
Yours truly
    J. C. Floed
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library


Fort Lane O.T.
    March 1st 1854
Dear Gen
    Enclosed is a slip from the Mountain Herald of 25th Feb. that I just received. So far as Inds. in my Dist. are concerned be assured that it is a lie out and out. But those on Rogue River are in a suffering condition for want of food. In fact if depredations are committed by them it will be from want. I don't know as I will be able to get this to the post office before the mail leaves, but will try.
Truly yours
    S. H. Culver
Genl. J. Lane
    Delegate in Congress
        Washington D.C.


March 7th / 54
     Dear Brother, I take this opportunity to inform you that we are well at present, hope that this may find you in the blessing. I want you to come to see us this summer for I have some particular business with you. I don't want you to make any deed to any person concerning Three Mile Island. There is several persons wants it and [illegible] in particular but whatever you do don't make any deed to any person until you come to see me this summer. I think that I shall buy up a lot of stock and take them with me to Oregon next spring. I am very anxious to see that country. I don't want you to write to any person but me concerning this matter. Williamsberg and several of our neighbors wants this property but I don't want to sell it until I see you. Don't forget to come to see us this summer. I have made up my mind thoroughly to go to Oregon next spring. I want you to write to Shelby & Barlow & tell them to give me a full description of the country. I have nothing more to say to you but remain your affectionate brother
Simon Lane
   
    Dear Uncle, I thought I would drop you a few lines in this letter. Mother sends her compliments to you. She says that she would be glad to see you. She did not have the pleasure to seeing you when you were here.
    Uncle, I want you to write to me as soon as you receive this letter. I have nothing much to say but remain your affectionate niece
Ann Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




    Remarks on certain accounts and bills, presented by citizens of Oregon and California, for services and supplies furnished during the Rogue River War of 1853, also remarks concerning muster rolls of volunteers in that war.
    Of the muster rolls of volunteers in the hands of the Secy. of War, to the best of my belief and knowledge the following are substantially correct, as correct as could be expected under the circumstances, viz: Capt. Goodall's, Lamerick's and Miller's.
    Capt. Fowler's company was enrolled by the Commissioners of Military Affairs in Rogue River Valley as a guard for the defense of the town of Jacksonville. When they advised with me on the subject, I suggested the enrollment of thirty men. I suppose the muster roll in the hands of the Secy. to be correct.
    Capt. Owens' company was enrolled by my authority--twenty-five men--but was soon after disorganized. The men
[missing page?]
prices of articles of subsistence be regulated so that different merchants shall not be paid different prices for the same article. This to apply to merchants in northern California (in the vicinity of Yreka) and in Rogue River Valley.
B. R. Alden
    Late Capt. 4th U.S. Infy.
Washington D.C.
March 24th 1854


Washington City
    March 25 1854
My Dear Tyler
    Your note of the 20th inst. has been recd. Territorial business has been made the special order for the first week in May, and within that week the bill providing for paying the expenses of the Rogue River War will pass the House, and in a month or two thereafter will become a law. You are sufficiently acquainted with Congressional legislation to know that things are not dispatched as rapidly as we have been in the habit of moving in the mountains in search of gold or Indians.
    Should an increase of the army be authorized I shall stand by you for a captaincy.
    The Nebraska Bill has been sent to the committee of the whole. I am inclined to think that it will pass notwithstanding.
    I shall send you papers.
Your friend
    Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Washington City
    March 31 1854
Dear Tyler
    Yours of the 26th inst. has this moment been recd. I recd. your letter written soon after your arrival at home & answered it promptly and sent you some papers.
    I think I wrote you that Territorial bills have been made the special order for the first week in May. During that week the bill for the expenses of the Rogue River War will pass, at least I hope it will pass, and have no fear of the results; for the occasion I shall be prepared.
    The difficulty between Cutting & Breckinridge has been settled, honorably, without bloodshed.
    I am glad to hear that you are determined to unite yourself to a better half. You could do nothing more sensible, and from your description I know she is lovely and worthy, worthy [of] the hand of my gallant young friend, who will I am sure be to her a good, kind, affectionate husband. I wish you both many years of peace, happiness & prosperity.
    Shall be pleased to hear from you occasionally. I send you some speeches and papers.
Your friend
    Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library





Astoria Apl. 2 / 54
Genl. Lane
    Dr. Sir
        I take the liberty of addressing you in regard to my losses at the mouth of Rogue River in 1849. The fact is I ought to be paid. I know that it is believed that we were scared away from the vessel. This is a malicious falsehood. The greater part of the goods on board belonged to myself. When the vessel struck, the Indians that had not previously placed themselves behind logs, rocks &c. did so! Was not this enough to show us that we were among enemies. The boat was lowered to get out the anchors, but the sea was so short that nothing could be done. I went to the Captain & asked if there was any hope of saving the vessel; he answered no hope! What must now be done. We had no provisions save 3 lb. of pork & ½ a bbl. of spoiled flour. The tide was ½ ebb & 'twas evident the next flood must make a complete wreck.
    Perhaps not less than a thousand eyes was on us & consequently no hope of saving anything by making a cache or deposit of our goods. The Indians firing upon us & nothing to be gained by fighting them. a Chinook Indian we had on board to say to them that if they Rational conclusion was inevitable. We forsook the vessel as soon as possible, night approaching. The Indians robbed the vessel & burnt it that night. You know these Rogue River devils & the fact is we were virtually pirated away from our goods or fight in vain to save them.
    Should you feel disposed to do me a kind favor to bring in a bill for my benefit, I can be advised by you what voucher will be indispensable. My bills was all left on the vessel & I was unable to duplicate them. The Captain & mate of the vessel is livin' about New York & should you do anything their evidence of my loss would be the most prominent evidence that I have. My loss was a little over three thousand dollars, & you might bring in a bill for a special grant of land at the mouth of Rogue River (north side) to be equivalent to my losses as I know you would meet opposition if you ask money. At Jacksonville not much doing in the mines. The best mining country now is along the coast from Port Orford to Coos Bay & little south of the Umpqua River.
    I hope you will see the necessity of some amendments to the land law, as much time must yet elapse before we can reach patent, particularly in districts not yet surveyed.
    I went through as commissioner & surveyor of roads from here to Tualatin Plains last summer. By our estimate it is from here to those plains 81 miles on a course south 25°E. Last Legislature made Salem the terminus of the road. Our route last summer passed over a good country ⅔rd of the way--no road in the Territory is so loudly called for for mail & military facilities as well as opening the country for settlement. I hope you will have double fortitude in asking a liberal appropriation immediately to open the road. Subscriptions or circulating to defray expenses, but I have no faith in a sum being raised. With my best wishes for your success, believe me your sincere friend
J. M. Shively
Hon. Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Salem O.T. May 2nd 1854
Dear Genl.,
    Your favor of the 14th of March came to hand last night. As regards what you say about the charge having been made here of you having Deady removed to "kill him off," that charge has certainly been made here against you, but only by such men as Holbrook. I heard him make it once myself and contradicted it on the spot. No friend of yours, and I think I may safely [say] no Democrat in Oregon, believes a word of it.
    I have talked freely with Deady on the subject and know that he never for a moment entertained a thought of the kind. His reappointment gives great satisfaction to the Democracy, and as to yourself I think that you never stood fairer with the people of Oregon than at the present moment. All those little "squaw hopping" stories have died away or been contradicted, leaving nothing against you as a man, a politician or a (God save the mark) "Christian"!!!
    Curry has not been in town for a few days. Your letter to him containing the $250 draft has been received at the office, and I suppose that he will hand it over to me when he comes up.
    The boys are regularly at school, not having missed a day since you left. Their expenses for board, tuition, washing, books and clothing up to the 19th of February last amounted to $360.16, all of which I have paid. The present quarter will expire in a few days, when I will pay what is behind.
    I received $50 that you left with Nat or Shelby at Portland, and the $200 draft.
    God damn old Whittlesey. He won't answer my requisitions. If you will step into the Treasury Department someday when you have leisure and cut his damned old throat and shit in the gash I will go out to your claims and make your eighteen thousand five hundred and fifty-four rails and pack them out on my back.
    By attending to him soon you will oblige your friend
J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Champoeg, Marion Co., O.T.
    June 5th 1854
Genl. Joseph Lane
    Dear Sir,
        Since your departure from our lovely Territory I have had no communication from you until last mail brought me testimony (dated Washington Jan. 14) which, I confess, I began lately to surmise. But the warm sentiments of approbation expressed--and particularly in relation "to my zeal and efficiency in discharge of my complicated duties in connection with the forces organized for the suppression of Indian difficulties" has not only obliterated every sentiment of that sort--but has reestablished the connection.
    You refer to the fact of the muster rolls not being forwarded &c. I presume that desideratum has long since been supplied.
    All matters pertaining to my department were communicated agreeable with your instructions to the Secty. of War & of the Int. before you left our Territory.
    I remained in Jacksonville until Decr. last, urging the finishing [of] the muster rolls by Drew--and for the matter of two weeks prior to my departure I waited specially for that purpose--and finally was obliged to leave without them--but with the assurance that they would be forwarded to the proper departments in one week afterwards.
    I called on Gov. Davis in Salem and placed in his hands a brief of the proceedings of the commissioners in order that he might enable the Legislature to memorialize Congress on the subject &c.
    Thus in all matters connected with our Ind. difficulties from its commencement until Decr. last I devoted my time and energy to the success of our enterprise. No matter how imperfectly I may have succeeded I done my best--and feel amply rewarded by your approval--as well as that of the citizens of the valley generally.
    Today we elect our county & Territorial officers, the majority of which will be satisfactory--also the preparatory vote for becoming one of our glorious sisterhood [of states] which I have no doubt will be carried--a few friends are waiting [for me] to accompany them to the polls--
    I thank you for Mr. Cutting's reply to Mr. Smith of Alsea, although I am grieved at the position your friend the President is placed in by Cutting's showing!
    I have been uniformly--am--and always will be I presume a Democrat after the fashion of Jefferson, Jackson &c. But I protest that I would not be President and be forced into the adoption of such measure as the present chief of our glorious republic. However, as there is generally two sides to every equation I beg of you to help me to understand this subject correctly.
    I presume that in the midst of attending to our interests in Congress you have overlooked my request to send me the government organ and debates--I have waited patiently, still hoping that next mail &c.--and lately thought you had forgotten me.
    A few docts. of House Rep. & Sen., maps, charts or diag. and port office rep. could not fail in being most appreciated by your friends here & my neighbors--which I would distribute with pleasure.
    At the request of my mother & sisters I have quit the mines--and am for the present living with them on the beautiful claim of my late brother's 4 miles from Champoeg, French Prairie. This is all very pleasant and very good, but I must say that I feel it rather inglorious.
Have the goodness to write to me at your earliest convenience and believe me your friend,
Edward Sheil
   
    Have the goodness to write to me at your earliest convenience and believe me your friend.
Edward Sheil
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Washington, June 26, 1854.
My Dear Friend Hoyt: Salem
    Your favor of the 4th has just been received. I am truly grateful to you for the interest you take in my sons. It is a consolation to me to know that your watchful care will be over them, and to this I must attribute, to a considerable extent, the success they have attained in their studies. I hope you will continue this attention, as well in regard to their physical as mental being. I am pained at La Fayette's sickness, and hope, whenever it may be necessary for his health, that he relax his studies. But I am assured that you will have an eye to this in my absence.
    I will call on the Secretary of State in relation to the documents you speak of. I am pleased to learn that your institution is in so flourishing a condition, and hope it may long continue to advance in strength and usefulness, and prove a blessing to our young and growing country.
    In regard to the education of my sons, or rather the branches I prefer, I have only to remark that reading, writing, grammar and arithmetic, mathematics &c. are, in my opinion, the first essentials of a good education. In regard to other studies, you own good judgment will be a better guide than anything I can say on the subject.
Your friend
    Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library





Corvallis, Benton Co. 20th July / 54
Genl. Joseph Lane
    Dear Sir,
        Yesterday I passed through Salem on my way to Jacksonville on a flying visit--and requested my brother George to write to you for me, inasmuch as I was so pressed for time--
    Reflecting on the bill lately before Congress for appointing registers & receivers for Oregon and Washington Territories which I presume has passed before this--I have concluded to solicit your good offices in my behalf for the appointment of Receiver for Oregon. If you deem the suggestion appropriate I am satisfied that it can be accomplished.
    If I obtain the appointment I would suggest a new place called New Orleans, Linn Co. opposite Corvallis, which is being established and possessing many facilities for the public--and as near as may be in the center of the Territory--
    Great excitement just now, owing to recent discoveries of gold on the Coquille River about the forks--say some fifty miles from the ocean--also some 40 or fifty miles from Port Orford similar, pretty well-authenticated facts. This week the fell Reaper is making great havoc among the crops; three weeks ago there was much apprehension in French Prairie on account of late cold rains, succeeded by sudden bursts of heat--but after all, Oregon will prove herself all her most enthusiastic friends have claimed for her.
Respectfully
    Your friend
        Edward Sheil
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Salem O.T. August 14th 1854
Dear Genl.,
    Yours of June 29th containing Riggs & [Co's.] draft for $150 was received per last mail. Lafayette as I sometime since wrote you is still absent on a visit to his mother. John is still with me and pursuing his studies during vacation. Mrs. Lane wrote some time since for John to go out and assist them on the farm, but as you had so often expressed your desire for him to remain here and go to school, I advised him to remain.
    You will see ex-Gov. Davis before this reaches you. I think the old man is disgusted with Oregon.
    By the way, the question of who shall be our next Delegate is beginning to attract some attention. Some persons who pretend to be the recipients of your confidence say that you will not consent to have it again. For my own part I should be glad to see you in a much higher position, but let that be as it may, I think as a matter of justice to your friends here that you should at an early day indicate what your wishes and intentions are on the subject of the Delegateship so that they may act understandingly.
    I had hoped that we had elected our last Delegate, and it would have been so if the Democracy of Oregon had of been true to their instincts at the last spring election, but as [the] "convention" was beat I suppose that we shall have to try and make our Territorial existence tolerable for a few more years.
    By letting us know what your decision is in the matter you will greatly oblige your friends.
    Why is it that there are no patents issued yet by the department for lands in Oregon?
In haste I remain
    Very truly your
        Friend, J. W. Nesmith
   
P.S. The Surveyor Genl. is here with his office filled with Whig clerks. It would be a godsend to the party here if he could be removed.
J.W.M.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Washington City
    August 31 1854
Hon. James Guthrie
    Secretary of the Treasury
        Sir
            Herewith I propose to furnish you such facts as came within my own knowledge in relation to the services of Genl. Joel Palmer of Oregon in the war with the Cayuse Indians in the years 1847 and 1848. I met with the Genl.in San Francisco in Jany. 1849, and took passage with him on the same ship with him. On our way to Oregon I learned much from him, and other Oregonians, returning home from San Francisco about the Cayuse War. From the Genl. I learned that the war had terminated in the summer of '48, that he had served a quartermaster and commissary, and at the close of the war he found himself encumbered with a large amt. of public property, books and unadjusted accounts, that he had a strong desire to convert the property into the largest sum possible for the payment as far as it would go of the expenses of the war. Consequently when he left home he found it necessary to employ other persons to take charge of the property, books and accounts--to arrange and close them up. This I found to be on my arrival at Oregon City to be the case. From my personal knowledge therefore I am able to state that he had two persons employed a portion of the time, & one, Mr. Clouse [Cloisse?], the entire time of the absence as clerk, & the other to take charge of and dispose of property, and I further know that he paid them for their services out of his own money. And further I can say that I consider
Palmer an honest, conscientious, good man and efficient officer [and] the award allowed to Palmer by Commissioner Wait just and only but a reasonable compensation for his services as quartermaster, and in my judgment ought to be paid without further delay.
[Joseph Lane]
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



EXPENSES OF ROGUE RIVER INDIAN WAR.
    The next bill upon the Calendar which came up for consideration in order was House bill (No. 339) to authorize the Secretary of War to settle and adjust the expenses of the Rogue River Indian War.
    The bill was read in extenso.
    The Clerk then read the first section.
    Mr. LANE, of Oregon. Mr. Chairman, the duty devolves upon me, I imagine, to give an explanation of the object of this bill, and of the circumstances which make its passage necessary. If I knew that it would pass without anything being said by me, I would say nothing; and it would gratify me very much. But, for fear that it might not be so, I avail myself of the opportunity to make a brief statement.
    In the Rogue River Valley there are two great tribes of Indians, the Umpquas and Shastas, all known as the Rogue River Indians. These Indians, for the last twelve months, have been preparing for war. They were enabled to provide themselves with the implements of war, and with everything necessary to commence a deadly hostility, and to make every arrangement necessary for carrying out their purpose, by means of appearing friendly to the whites, in hunting for them, and selling the proceeds of the chase for guns, powder, balls &c.
    In that vicinity there are rich mines, and many American citizens had rushed in there for the purpose of digging for gold. Many persons from the States who had no intention of becoming citizens of that Territory, and who did not become citizens, went there in search of gold. It is the habit of miners, and it is the habit of American citizens who are in search of gold, to take with them a rifle and other weapons which they regard as necessary for their personal safety and protection.
    The Indians in that valley, who are a superior race, remarkable for their intelligence, availed themselves of the great number of miners, who purchased of them the game that they could kill, and which was very plenty in that portion of Oregon, to realize a considerable sum of money, which they took care to invest in rifles, pistols, powder, lead and percussion caps, and everything else necessary to commence a war of extermination; in this way all they had received in twelve months past had been invested. At that time the white people in the vicinity, among whom were many families, believed they were as safe as the people of the city in Washington now consider themselves.
    The massacre commenced the first day by a scattering band of Indians; and Edwards, Wills and Noland, all of them American citizens, were massacred. Only these three were murdered the first day. This was, however, only a beginning of the execution of a scheme which had been matured for sweeping off every white man, woman and child in that country. This tribe had formed an alliance with other tribes. The Klamath Indians, numbering some five hundred warriors, within seventy-five miles, and Tipsoe Tyee's band, within twenty-five miles, had agreed to join them in the massacre; and, as soon as the war commenced, they were all to rush in, and sweep from the face of the earth every man, woman and child. And, Mr. Chairman, their designs would have been accomplished, but for the prompt and efficient aid of Captain Alden, who is now in this city, crippled for life, in consequence of a wound he received in that war. I say that but for his aid they would have been swept from the country, every man, woman and child. The Indians were well armed; and it is a fact, strange as it may seem, that the white people were mostly without arms. They had no apprehensions from these Indians. They had lived with them for many months in peace. They had sold their arms to the Indians, and believed them to be perfectly harmless in their intentions.
    When the massacre commenced Captain Alden was one hundred miles off. The intelligence was received, and he, with a company of ten men, his whole available force, immediately started in the night and rushed to the rescue. They succeeded in checking the Indians for the time being. In the meantime two companies of Californians, under Captains Goodall and Rhodes, turned out and joined Captain Alden. All the people, or nearly all in Rogue River Valley, capable of bearing arms, were organized into companies, two under Captains Miller and Lamerick for active service, and one under Captain Fowler, for the protection of the town of Jacksonville. The two companies under Captains Miller and Lamerick were organized into a battalion, and placed under the command of Colonel Ross. I take occasion here to say that too much praise cannot be given to Captain Alden for his prompt organization of these troops, or to the troops themselves for their gallantry and good conduct.
    Soon after the battle with the Indians, Captain Nesmith, who had been ordered out by the Governor, joined me with a large company of volunteers; also, Captain Smith, with a company of United States dragoons; Captains Martin, Applegate and Terry, each with a small company, promptly repaired to the theater of hostilities. To all these officers, and the men under their command, I take pleasure in saying that great praise is due for their gallant and soldier-like bearing. I also take pleasure in saying that I am indebted to Major Alvord, of the United States Army, for much valuable assistance in negotiating a treaty with the Indians, as well as Superintendent Palmer. Mr. Culver, Indian agent, threw down the shovel, the pick and other mining implements, and rushed to the rescue. By this timely movement the progress of the massacre was checked, and but for it every white inhabitant of that country must have been stricken down. He divided his forces at night, so as to prevent the Indians from coming upon the settlements, and in that way managed to hold them in check. Many skirmishes, however, ensued, and John R. Hardin, Dr. Rose and others were killed. On the morning of the 16th of August, I received notice at my residence, which is one hundred miles north of that point, that the Indians had commenced a general slaughter of the white people of that country. This intelligence was brought to me by Mr. Ettlinger and Mr. Nichol, who had ridden the whole distance in a day and night. In a few minutes after its arrival, I was on the road to the Rogue River Valley.
    I mention these facts to show the committee my knowledge of the transactions there. It is necessary that I should allude to them.
    On the 15th day of August, Captain Armstrong, a valued and respected citizen of Oregon, passed my house on his way to California, through the Rogue River Valley. Then the rumor was indefinite--that there was trouble in that quarter--but we did not know to what extent. It had been my lot to have been thrown into the company of Captain Armstrong in 1851, during a war with the same Indians. I found him a gallant and valuable gentleman. I mentioned that I was unwilling to see him go in the direction in which he was going without a rifle. He had none with him. "What," he replied, "was the matter?" I told him the rumor had reached me that there was trouble of some kind in the valley; that his life was too valuable to be incautiously trusted there; and that he had better take my rifle. He did so. In the course of that night he met the express going for me, and waited until I overtook him, when we traveled together. We arrived in Rogue River Valley [the] 19th of August. We found Captain Alden, with his usual gallantry and efficiency, in command, and affording protection to our citizens. His force, in my judgment, was sufficient to make a movement against the enemy, which he had already contemplated. A few days before, a portion of his command under Lieutenant Ely had been sent to make a reconnaissance. He fell into an ambuscade, and nearly half his command were killed. The other half would have shared the same fate but for the timely arrival of a reinforcement. Although I came as a volunteer, Captain Alden insisted that I should take the command of the troops. At his urgent request I did so. Sunday afternoon order was given to be ready to move on Monday morning at four o'clock. At the appointed time every foot was in the stirrup. Wednesday morning we overtook the Indians, and brought them to battle. Captain Alden was shot down. Captain Armstrong received a shot at about the same moment, and just had time to say that they had given him a dead center shot. The conflict led to a peace. Notwithstanding the screams, yells and war-whoops of the Indians for four hours, and notwithstanding we had failed to dislodge them, they agreed to make peace. They asked for peace. They wanted to know who commanded the troops. I heard them. I know their language well, having had a good deal to do with them, and knew most of them personally. They called out for me to come in, as they wanted a talk. They were tired of fighting, and desired peace. Well, I had been a little hurt myself, and I said to them and to the command that I would rather fight forty battles than talk about one peace. But after a good deal of time had been lost, and after a great deal of persuasion, I went among them. The preliminaries of a peace were made on the battleground. We camped on the battleground for two nights. The Indians were so well satisfied that there would be a peace that they assisted in removing our wounded men on litters across the country, which, by the by, is the worst country I ever traveled over. Well, a peace was made, and it has been maintained until this time, and I think it always will be maintained, for the government has purchased their lands. A treaty was made with them directly after the war for their territory, and that treaty has been ratified.
    I have given this history of the war from its commencement to its termination, for the purpose of satisfying the committee that the volunteers who turned out on that occasion ought to be paid for their services. I ask that the Secretary of War may be authorized to pay them. Many lost their lives. The Indians killed nearly as many of us as we killed of them. We only ask that those volunteers who turned out and assisted in putting down an Indian war that would otherwise have lasted for years, and cost the government millions of dollars, and hundreds of lives--and, as it was, did cost us the lives of many valuable citizens--may be paid for their services. The troops were disbanded as soon as it was thought safe to do so. I kept them with me but a few days after the peace was made, and remained near the Indians for several weeks myself for two reasons; one was that I was not very well able to get away from them, and the other was that I knew that by remaining there until the hot blood had somewhat cooled I could prevent a renewal of hostilities between the Indians and the whites. We only ask that the volunteers shall be paid for the time which they actually served, and the necessary expenses of subsistence, ammunition, forage and so forth. The accounts were all carefully kept. Captain Alden had appointed quartermasters and commissaries, and the accounts were as accurate and correct as I have ever seen them in the Army. I hope this explanation will satisfy the committee that the bill ought to pass.
    Mr. WASHBURN, of Maine. I should like to ask the gentleman from Oregon a question. Will the gentleman state about how much the expenditures will amount to?
    Mr. LANE. My opinion is that they will amount to about $150,000; perhaps a little over or a little under. I cannot, however, say exactly.
    Mr. WASHBURN. The language of the bill is rather wide. It provides for appropriating money for the expenditures for all necessary and proper supplies. Now, would it not be well enough to have some limitation as to the full amount?
    Mr. LANE. I am very willing to say that it shall not exceed $175,000, if the committee desire that there shall be a restriction. But I have confidence in the Secretary of War. I have confidence in his ability, integrity and honesty, and in his capacity to judge from the papers what allowances are reasonable. He will allow nothing wrong, and we ask nothing but what is right. Let me say here that, so far as I was concerned, I settled my accounts on the spot. I went out as a volunteer, but I received while there a commission as brigadier general from the acting Governor of the Territory. As soon as I could ride down from the portion of the country where the war took place, I returned the commission with a note on it that I charged nothing for my services; that I would not receive anything for them then, or at any future time, nor will I.
    But that was not the case with others. Many persons left their business and hurried to the rescue of the people there, when the Indians were about to tomahawk men, women and children; and this would have been done, had it not been for the noble conduct of Captain Alden and those brave men who volunteered in their defense. All I ask is that these men shall be paid, and that the actual and necessary expenses of the war shall also be paid. I hope no further explanations will be necessary.
"Thirty-Third Congress," Daily Globe, Washington, D.C., May 6, 1854, page 4


MARRIED.
    On the --th ult., at the residence of Samuel Stevenson, in Douglas County, by Judge Deady, Joseph S. Lane, Esq., to Miss Eleanor Stevenson.
Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, May 19, 1854, page 3



Winchester
    May 19th / 54
Dear Father
    Yours of the 3rd of April is now at hand, for which I am much obliged; glad to know that you are well.
    We are all well at this time and doing the best we can. Business in Winchester is quite dull, and we have a great deal of opposition to contend with, therefore we are compelled to sell goods very cheap in order to compete with others' prices. We have on hand a great many articles that we have to sell at or below cost. However we can replace them with much less money. I think Oregon is overstocked with goods, and many merchants will fail this summer.
    The firm of Hartless & Murch have moved their store from Marysville to Winchester under pretense of selling out at cost in order to close business, but I think they intend this for a permanent location to continue business from the fact that they won't sell anything unless it brings a profit. They had an auction sale today and [I] suppose sold two or three hundred dollars worth of goods, but they had a man employed to bid who run everything up so high that merchants had no chance.
    Creed will go to Portland about the first of June to purchase goods. From all accounts goods can be bought cheap at that place, owing to the great amount they have on hand.
    The cows & calves look well; however, the grass does not look so well as it did last year when I first came in the valley. More anon.
Your affectionate son
    Simon R. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library


Camp mouth of Chetco
2 June 1854
Dear General
    We reached this place 12 o'clock on yesterday. We have visited all the bands on our way down and up to the Great Bend. They are all very friendly and kind to us and to all sensible white men. I shall investigate the Miller matter here; this will detain us some time longer than I had anticipated but justice requires it. We are all well and in good spirits. In case you arrive at Port Orford before us I suppose you will have to wait our arrival. This shall be done with as much dispatch as the circumstances will permit.
    I have the honor to be your obt servant
        J. L. Parrish
            Ind Agt
                Port Orford
                    District
To Hon. Joel Palmer
    Supt Ind Affairs
        Dayton Oregon T.


At Home Tuesday 20th June 1854.
Friend Lane
    After my respects to you--hoping this may, when received, find you in good health--the most invaluable blessing we mortals can possess in the world, &c.
    I will give a brief statement of our election in the Territory so far as heard from. Washington County has gone Whig entire with the exception of one representative, and Meek for Colonel who was elected by one vote.  160 for Convention, 694 against, &c.  Marion County has carried the Democratic ticket entire with the exception of Sheriff; against Convention 393.  Whole number votes cast 1,131. Linn County Democratic ticket elected entire--majority for Conv. 287. Benton County--representatives one Dem., one Whig, the balance Dem. ticket elected with exception one county commissioner; for Conv. 181 against Conv. 320. Yamhill County--the Dem. ticket elected with the exception of one Representative--a small maj. for Conv. Polk County--the entire Dem. ticket elected, majority for Conv. 84. Clackamas County--the entire Dem. ticket elected--with the exception of one county commissioner.  J. B. Preston, Whig, was elected by a small majority. Majr. against Conv. 170. Wasco County send a Dem. to the Legislature. Lane County is Democratic; 750 majority for Conv. Douglas County Democratic, large majority for Conv., in Winchester precinct out of 77 votes, 66 for Conv. In Umpqua there is a close run between Ladd Dem. and Thompson Whig.  County strongly for Conv.  It is generally believed here that Convention will carry by a small majority.  This is all so far as heard from.
    J. C. Avery has qualified as postal agent and will enter on the duties of the office on the 1st of July.
    I saw our friend Lovejoy on Saturday last; he seems a good deal mortified at his removal.  I wrote you last mail in relation to his being destitute of any ready means for a support.  I feel for him.  And thought very hard against the Department for turning him out when I last wrote you.  But upon mature reflection of the matter, I have come to the conclusion that the Post Office Department could not do otherwise than it has done in the premises.  The office is an intricate one, and one to give satisfaction requires eternal vigilance and industry in an agent, and in my own mind I have concluded that he was guilty of dereliction of the duties of the office.  This is my private opinion.
    I have no doubt but that you have many applications from our Democratic friends in this Territory asking your good graces and influence for any office that may be created or become vacant in the Territory, that they may have the appointment.  I will for the first time will request it of you (should it meet your approbation) if this should reach in time to present my name for a receiver of public money in the Land Office about to be established in this Territory, I am conscious that I can discharge the duties of the office.  Otherwise, I should have said nothing in the premises about myself. 
    But I really do think old Clackamas is deserving of something--and I should be glad if Lovejoy could get an office that would pay.
    We have had, and up to this time [have] a great deal of cold, cloudy weather differing entirely from any spring that I have witnessed in this Territory.
    You will write the true situation of the Cayuse War claim audited by A. E. Wait in favor of A. L. Lovejoy for over 200 dollars and transferred in favor of A. J. Cason at your very earliest convenience. 
    I must beg your pardon for this obtruding myself and others and their wants upon your time and patience, but I feel that if I have done wrong in this, your goodness    will pardon my presumption.
    With my best respects and well wishes for your health, prosperity & happiness, I am your friend,
Fendal C. Cason
Hon. J. Lane



Department of the Interior
    Washington, June 22nd 1854.
Sir,
    I will thank you to ascertain and report to me what expenditures were incurred by Gen. Lane, as Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon, for blankets &c. in obtaining the surrender of Indians accused of murder at Fort Nisqually and also what moneys were paid out by him to counsel for their defense in the trial for the murder and whether he received credit therefor, and if so under what authority of law or otherwise.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Yr. obt. servant
            R. McClelland
                Secretary [of the Interior]
Chas. E. Mix Esqr.
    Acting Commr. of Indian Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Roll 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 375-376.



House Reps.
    Washington City
        June 22 1854.
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the rcpt. of your communication of day before yesterday enclosing a copy of the certificate of O. C. Pratt in relation to services rendered by Kintzing Pritchett Esqr. as counsel for certain Cayuse Indians who were tried in the year 1851 for the murder of Dr. Whitman and family.
    At the time the Indians were brought to trial, I was Governor of the Territory of Oregon and ex-officio Superintendent of Indian Affrs., and I hereby certify that Kintzing Pritchett was appointed by Judge Pratt at my request, and in accordance with a promise made by me to the prisoners and the Cayuse Nation, counsel for the prisoners at the trial, and performed the duty assigned him with zeal and ability. He is in my opinion entitled to compensation, and I do not consider the amount designated in the certificate of Judge Pratt as more than is reasonable and just.
I am sir with great respect
    Your obt. servt.
        Joseph Lane
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Roll 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 379-381.



Yreka June 22nd 1854                       
Dear General
    I have to say that Mr. Tyler has just returned, and he tells me that Capt. Rhoades' muster rolls had not arrived with the other papers of the Rogue River War. I must beg that you will not attribute to me any neglect of duty for this; they were made out with the rest and placed in Maj. Drew's hands to be forwarded, and he has informed me that they were sent after the other papers were forwarded. Should you not have received them by this time it is evident that they have miscarried, and as it is important to do justice to Capt. Rhoades' company as well as the rest, if you so advise I will go over to Jacksonville and make them out again from a copy I left there, and forward them at the earliest moment.
    Should the present Congress fail to make an appropriation, they can arrive in time to be incorporated with the other rolls for the action of the next session.
    Believe me sir! that I have used every diligence to carry out the order which you entrusted to me at Jacksonville, and I hope that you and Capt. Alden are satisfied with me.
    You will confer a favor on me and my company by giving me the earliest information of an appropriation for us, with the details of pay allowed.
    I now take the liberty of trespassing on your valuable time to call your attention to our Indian affairs. I forward you two Yreka Heralds, which will give you some idea how affairs stand. It is needless to say that my conduct in these affairs has met the entire approval of the agent and of the officers of the army here and that the communication in the Herald headed "Indian Affairs" was not got up by a meeting of the citizens of Cottonwood, but was an emanation from a few persons who had committed an outrageous murder upon the Indians, against good faith and in violation of treaties, and who then had the hardihood and impudence to come out in a public newspaper and by false assertions endeavor to shield themselves from public execrations, and to cast aspersions upon others.
    Persons living on this frontier are well aware that the Indians generally have an innate propensity to steal and commit depredations, and that the strong arm of force and authority must be used to restrain them, as well as those whites who by improper conduct in their interference with the Indians so frequently jeopardize the peace of the country.
    The government authorities cannot too soon take action to carry out this policy and hold to a strict accountability all persons guilty of crimes, and I very respectfully suggest that one or two examples of this sort will greatly promote the interests of this frontier, and at much less expense than if another course is adopted.
    Tipsu Tyee has certainly been killed by the Shasta tribe. I had his grave opened, witnessed by three other whites and am satisfied. His only son and one warrior were killed with him also, and Capt. Smith at Fort Lane has captured and broken up this thieving band, who were the cause of so much trouble during the Rogue River War.
    You may well imagine the course I took after so much villainous abuse which you will see in the Herald I send you.
    Mr. Tyler and Albert Brown acted as my seconds, and I accompanied them to Cottonwood where I sent a very polite note challenging each and all [of] the parties to combat. There being a most miserable back out, no one coming up to the scratch, my two seconds then challenged them on their own account, with the same result.
    Should the affair at any future time bring about a duel--for I have expressed a willingness to fight any one of the parties--I have no apprehensions for the result, as my cause is just. I have been outraged, and I am too old a soldier not to understand the use of my weapons under fire.
    I am so anxious to see the perpetrators of the murderous affair that occurred on the 24 May at the Klamath Ferry punished in the U.S. District Court and as I am a material witness, I have by the advice of the agent failed to make any remarks in vindication of myself other than those you will see in the Herald that I send you.
    Esteeming you and Capt. Alden as amongst my best friends I have written this to you in order that my honor as a gentleman and my integrity as a man may not suffer for one moment in your estimation.
    You may hand or send this letter and the newspapers to Capt. Alden if you please. You will recollect my affair with Mr. Smith last summer, which Capt. Alden with so much solicitude took in hand to have amicably settled. I have an account of the recent affair with the people who have so much abused me in the newspaper publication referred to, determined to have this affair brought up again and settled according to the strict code of honor if practicable, and Mr. Tyler now has the affair in his hands.
    This affair with the Indians on the 24 May is I assure you General one of the most brutal, outrageous and uncalled-for murders that has ever been committed in the United States.
    The Indian agent has taken all the measures in his power to place the affair in a proper light before Lieut. Beale, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Cal., and he will doubtless in conjunction with Genl. Wool take speedy action upon it. But I am so deeply convinced that both justice and sound policy requires the government to take speedy and immediate action on this matter that I cannot refrain from bringing the subject to your attention and that of Capt. Alden, and of respectfully suggesting that the affair be laid before either the President himself or the head of the Indian Bureau.
    I hope that your avocations will permit you to write to me, and that Capt. Alden who is I believe at Washington has entirely recovered from his wounds. Mr. Tyler tells me that your wound is entirely well.
    I have the honor to be
        General, very respectfully
            your obedient servant
                James P. Goodall
Hon Jo Lane
    Washington
        D.C.
P.S.  I would like Capt. Alden to see this letter and the newspapers. It will give him a view of a new phase in frontier life that is decidedly rich.  J.P.G.



[June 1854]
An Act
making appropriations for the completion of
Military Roads in Oregon Territory.
    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled: That the following sums of money be and the same are hereby appropriated for the completion of military roads now in course of construction in Oregon Territory, to wit: for the completion of the road from Astoria to Salem the sum of sixty thousand dollars; for the completion of the road from Myrtle Creek to Camp Stuart the sum of thirty thousand dollars; and for the completion of the road from Myrtle Creek to Scottsburg thirty thousand dollars, the said roads to be completed under the direction of the Secretary of War.



    On my way to this city, after having a little row with the Rogue River Indians, I stopped in Oregon City to see my mills. And here I may say that those mills nearly ruined me. Their purchase was the worst thing I ever did. I agreed to give near $100,000 for them. I gave the earnings of twenty years of my life, and have now sold out for one-third what they cost me. I am not now the owner of a single mill.
Joseph Lane, "Congressional,"
Oregon Statesman, Salem, July 4, 1854, pages 1- 2



Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        July 20, 1854.
Sir:
    I have examined the communication left here by you of Mr. McCarty, making certain inquiries respecting a treaty which he understood to have been made with the Sioux and other Indians west of the Rocky Mountains about one year since, wherein they were to have a certain annuity for granting permission to emigrants to pass through their country unmolested and providing indemnification for depredations committed by the Indians.
    I presume Mr. McCarty must have had reference to a treaty made with the Sioux and other Indians at Fort Laramie on the 17th of September 1851, as the Sioux tribe reside east of the Rocky Mountains. If so, the said treaty made no provision for indemnification, but merely authorizes the President to withhold the whole or a portion of the annuities from the nation guilty of the violation of any of the provisions of said treaty until in the opinion of the President of the United States, proper satisfaction shall have been made.  Mr. McCarty's letter is herewith returned.
Very respectfully,
    Yr obt srvt
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commr.
Hon. Jos. Lane,
    H. of Reps.


Washington City
    August 14 1854
My dear Genl.,
    Mr. Guthrie sent for me this morning to have a talk about your accounts. He is quite out of patience and says that a settlement must be had, that is, that your accounts must be rendered without further delay. Now my dear friend I have from time to time begged the [Treasury] Department to let you have time and all would be satisfactorily arranged, but he appears to be determined to wait but little longer. He spoke of seven thousand dollars advanced you on going out. Now I am satisfied that if you will render an account showing the items of expenditure on your way with your family that you will be allowed this seven thousand, but he cannot, he holds, allow the round sum of $7000 without knowing how and for what purpose it had been expended, the balance you can account for, make out your accounts and certify or swear to them so far as your disbursements were made, and if you claim for building wharf or anything else that you have disbursed, which you cannot get allowed. Petition Congress for relief, and I will try and obtain the passage of a law authorizing the Secretary to allow in settling your accounts, but by all means if your account can be settled without, do not apply for relief. I am very anxious about your accounts and greatly hope that you may be able to close up. You may rest assured that you shall not be disturbed if I can help it. I am for you under all circumstances and at all times, know well your honesty, Democracy and integrity. Again allow me to say lose no time in closing up.
    I am gratified to know that you and other friends are pleased with the little castigation administered to the delegate from Washington. He is a great scamp, and will not do either credit or good to his Territory.
    I have attended to your Globe subscription. They will forward.
    Respects to your family and friends.
Your friend
    Joseph Lane
Genl. John Adair
   

I shall be a candidate for nomination for next delegate.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Letter from Gen. Lane.
Washington City, August 16, 1854.       
    A. Bush, Esq.,--Dear Sir:--The Rogue River war claims are in the hands of the second and third auditors, and will be audited without alteration; that is, as they are. The troops will be paid as per muster rolls. Thus you will see that the expenses of the Rogue River war will all be paid in less than eighteen months from the commencement of hostilities. The accounts will all be audited, including muster rolls, by the first of October. Action upon the suspended Cayuse war claims has been at  my request postponed for a few weeks, that I may be able to give personal attention to them. I am satisfied of the justice of the claims, and shall expect the full amount of the awards allowed by Skinner, Wait and Rice to be paid; shall insist on justice in these cases, and shall not be satisfied with anything but payment in full. And while speaking of this, Cayuse war claims heretofore allowed should be forwarded for payment, and all outstanding claims not acted on by some of the commissioners should be presented and proved up without delay. It is not improbable that many of these claims, mailed in Oregon, have failed to reach this city. Mr. Thompkins, for instance, wrote me that he had an allowance made him, and that Gov. Gaines had forwarded it by mail. On inquiring at the Comptroller's office I find that no such award had ever been received. In all such cases duplicates should be issued. It is desirable that the expenses of the Cayuse war should be as speedily settled as practicable.
    The season of Congress just closed transacted a large amount of important business. Below I give you a list of some of the most important bills passed: The regular appropriations bills, the Nebraska-Kansas bill, the bill providing for six first-class war steamers, the ten-million bill for Gadsden Treaty, the Homestead bill for Kansas and Nebraska, the bill extending the warehousing system, the bill to give effect to the Reciprocity Treaty, and the bill to regulate and systematize the postal system of the country. The importance of this latter bill will be seen and felt in good time. These, with many Territorial bills and a large number of private and local bills, were passed.
    Many important treaties were ratified, to wit: The Gadsden Treaty, by which we are released from the provisions of the Guadalupe Treaty to protect the Mexican frontier from Indian depredations, and by which we have obtained a large and valuable tract of country, and [a] good route for a southern railroad to the Pacific, the British Colonial Reciprocity Treaty, the commercial treaty with Japan, the neutrality treaty with Russia, and a number of Indian treaties, by which at low prices many million acres of rich soil have been secured for the benefit of the adventurous pioneers, who will soon reclaim and reduce it to cultivation. By the above brief history of the doings of the late session of Congress you will see that more important legislation has been had than by any previous session.
    The recent revolutions in Spain lend to the Cuban question fresh interest. It is doubtful whether the Queen will be able to sustain the government. It is difficult to sustain a throne which has been tottering for many years. Now will not the new government of Spain be more favorably disposed toward the sale of Cuba than the old one? The probability is that the new government will be much embarrassed [financially] and will not dare to levy new taxes on the people for fear of its popularity. Will not our government have a good opportunity to purchase that beautiful and to us most important island; in this way I hope to see our government obtain Cuba. The policy of the Administration in the management of our foreign relations has been wise, and will meet with the approval of the American people, except such as are opposed to our good, and especially so in time of war.
    It is my intention to remain a considerable portion of the recess in this city, where I am sure I can be useful to the people of Oregon in attending to the auditing and settlement of their just claims on the government for services, subsistence, forage, medical services, stores, ammunition &c., in the troubles we have had with the Indians, and prepare all my business for the next session. I have strong hopes of procuring an appropriation for a military road from Astoria to Salem, and additional appropriations for the Penitentiary and State House; at all events I shall do all I can for the promotion of our interests.
    Health improving,
        Your friend,
            JO LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, October 3, 1854, page 2



Salem Aug. 22nd 1854
Dear Father
    I received your very kind letter, for which all thanks. No news from home for some time. The last they were all well & wanted me to come home, but I do not intend to do it. Lafayette went home a few days since. I do not know whether he will return or not. They have a good school out there, and I expect he will go to school out there. We have a vacation of a few weeks. School takes up in two weeks. I wish to go 3 years yet if you are willing. Mary & Winnie are well. Winnie is very homesick. I think they will come down after her in a week or so. If Mr. Garrett is in Washington give him my love. And for god sake take care of Lancaster, for he has not got the sense of a louse. I think there will be some chance of me getting to Congress, that is, if I lived in Washington Territory. Write soon & often. Remember those books. I would like for you to send me the Washington Union. I am a-going to leave Nesmith's and go to the Institute and batch no more.
I remain your son
    John Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Sir,
    In relation to the services of Genl. A. L. Lovejoy, in the war with the Cayuse Indians, I have no personal knowledge, but from him and others I have learned that during that war he served as Adjt. Genl. to the Gov. under their military organization and that he was active in organizing the forces, and in bearing orders from the Gov. to the commander of the regt. while in services, have considered him a man of integrity, and have the same opinion of commissioners Wait & Rice and am inclined to recommend the payment of their awards or of the latter as just to Lovejoy and his assigns [unfinished]

Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library. Transmittal dated August 31, 1854.



[Below is a preliminary draft of Joel Palmer's annual report, part of the 1854 Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, available online here. The final version reveals lengthy deletions.]
Superintendency of Indian Affairs O.T.
    Dayton--Sept. 11th 1854.
Sir,
    I respectfully submit the following report of affairs in this superintendency during the past year.
    With a few exceptions the Indians remain in a condition differing little from that exhibited in my last report. Much excitement has existed at various times among the settlers and miners in the southern and southwestern districts, of which my former communications advised you to some extent. Outrages, in which whites and Indians, in turn, were the aggressors, have occurred, resulting in the death of a few of our citizens and many of the natives. These occurrences, especially the massacre of the natives at Coquille and Chetco, caused serious apprehensions of a general outbreak of hostilities in the Pt. Or'd. Dist. Frequent acts of violence during the winter, the sufferings of the Indians on the reserve from disease and want, the refusal of Tipsey and his band to come upon the reserve, and other causes, produced a state of affairs equally threatening in the Rogue River country.
    I determined at the close of the rainy season to visit the scene of those disturbances, and also if the condition of affairs permitted carry into effect my plans of exploration, which I have heretofore announced. Accordingly about the first of April I set out with a small party and a few pack animals, conveying, besides the necessary equipage of the expedition, some farming utensils and supplies for the tribes treated with in September, and a few presents for other Indians.
    I had before leaving home purchased and shipped a considerable quantity of Indian goods
to Port Orford to await my arrival at that point.
    On my route I visited several bands of the Umpquas. I found many of them wretched, sickly, and almost starving. Their habits being exceedingly improvident, and the winter unusually severe, they had been kept from perishing by the limited assistance afforded by a few humane settlers.
    Through the operation of the law lately enacted, prohibiting the sale of firearms and ammunition to Indians, they can no longer procure game, rendered scarce and timid by the presence of the white man, and the cultivation of the soil, together with the grazing of large herds of domestic animals, has greatly diminished the subsistence derived from native roots and seeds.
    They said, truly, that they were once numerous and powerful, but now few and weak, that they had always been friendly to the whites and desired them to occupy their lands, that they wanted but a small spot on which they might live in quiet. Many of their number, they said, had been killed by the whites in retaliation for wrongs committed by Indians of other tribes, and that they had never offered violence in return. They claimed it is but just in return for lands once yielding them abundant supplies that they should receive the means of subsistence for the few years they will exist.
    A few presents were made them, and sub-agent Martin instructed to secure them small tracts of lands, on which I learn they are now cultivating potatoes, corn, peas and other vegetables, giving promise that under the wise and fostering care of government they may become a domestic and agricultural people. The seventeen bands or villages of this tribe number 566 souls. The country of the Umpquas east is bounded by the Cascade Mountains, the Umpqua Mountains and coast on the west, Calapooia Mountains on the north and Grave Creek and Rogue River south, an area of not less than 3600 square miles, much of which is already settled by the whites, to 800 square miles. Of this tract the Indians' title is extinguished by the treaty with the Cow Creek Band.
    Near the Grave Creek Hills resides the feeble remnant of several bands once numerous and warlike. Their constant aggressions and treacherous conduct has brought upon them the heavy hand of vengeance, both of the whites and Indians. They speak the Umpqua language, and though so different in character may be regarded as belonging to that tribe. I declined making them any presents, and told them to expect nothing until they should merit it by their good conduct.
    I found the Indians of the Rogue River Valley excited and unsettled. The hostilities of last summer had prevented the storing of the usual quantity of foods; the occupation of their best root grounds by the whites greatly abridged that resource; their scanty supplies and the unusual severity of the winter had induced disease, and death had swept away nearly one-fifth of those residing on the reserve. Consternation and dismay prevailed; many had fled, and others were preparing to fly to the mountains for security.
    Tipsey, the chief of the party visited by General Lane at the close of the war, who, with the consent of the Rogue Rivers, had agreed to remove with his band to the reserve, and had accordingly received a part of the goods distributed in pursuance of the treaty, now refused peremptorily to come in, and his people showed their hostility and malignant temper by the murder of an inoffensive settler, taking his arms and ammunition, and laying his body with that of his dog as his own door. The principal actor in this tragedy was Tipsey's son, who boasted of the deeds to other Indians and declared his determination to continue his atrocities, having already with his party stolen a number of horses, destroyed cattle and robbed houses.
    An ingenious plan was laid to combine the Indians in a hostile movement. This was to secretly kill Jim, a Rogue River chief, who had been very active in discovering and arresting Indians committing depredations on the whites, and controlled much the largest band in the tribe, and to fix the suspicion of his death on the whites, which would entirely destroy the confidence of the Indians in our professions, and unite them in seeking revenge.
    The plan was carried out so far as the murder of the chief. He was shot from a house in Jacksonville occupied by whites who were then from home. The perpetrator, a young Indian, instantly fled, but fortunately was seen leaving the house by the friends of the chief, thus the perfidious scheme was frustrated. Such have been the efforts on the part of unfriendly Indians to break the late treaty, and plunge us back into war; and it is feared that white persons have not been wanting who from revengeful or mercenary motives have attempted to effect the same object.
    Prior to my arrival, Agent Culver, accompanied by Capt. Smith with a command of thirty soldiers, had scoured the country occupied by the bands of Limpy, John, Elijah and Tipsey and succeeded in inducing Elijah's bands to start for the reserve, but near Jacksonville they nearly all dispersed and fled to the mountains. A few families remaining with the chief camped among the miners.
    On my arrival at the fort I proceeded with Mr. Culver to Elijah's camp, and after a talk messengers were dispatched to collect the fugitives, and the families present put on their move to the reserve, where days afterwards the chief was joined by his entire band. Lieut. Bradford with 40 dragoons was sent in pursuit of Tipsey to bring him and his murderous band, if possible, to justice. I accompanied the command for five days without success. When called by other duties I returned to Fort Lane, leaving the detachment still in pursuit. I may here say that Tipsey after repeated acts of robbery and the murder of a white man on the Siskiyou Mountain was, it is said, slain, together with his son, by the Shasta Indians, and his band dispersed, some of whom are probably still prowling among the mountains.
    I next visited the Etch-ka-taw-wah or Applegate Creek and the Haw-quo-e-hov-took or Illinois Creek bands, usually called the Shasta bands of Rogue Rivers. At the time of my arrival great consternation prevailed from intelligence that the miners from Althouse and Sailor Diggings were about to come down and wipe them out. The bloody attack upon them last winter in which seven squaws and two children were killed and several men and children wounded, gave them but too much cause to be alarmed by this report.
    They consequently fled from camps to the mountains. Some boys of this band residing with a gentleman named Mooney on Deer Creek were with him dispatched to the Indians with a request to meet me in council. On the second day after I had the satisfaction of seeing them generally come in, and arrangements were made for their immediate removal to a reserve, the consent of the Rogue Rivers being previously obtained. The details of a treaty were left for subsequent action. The same day under the escort of Mr. Mooney they were on their way to the reserve.
    A portion of the country claimed by the Applegate band was included in the treaty of purchase made in Sept. last at Table Rock, but a considerable tract lay west of the country ceded, and John, the patriarch of his band, who came in after the signing of the treaty and received a portion of the goods had returned to this branch of his family. For reasons set forth in Agent Culver's report these Indians have since been permitted to return to their old homes, where they still remain. With the exception of a few lodges near the mouth of Illinois Creek and Limpy's and George's bands, near the mouth of Applegate Creek, these bands have the controlling influence over all Indians between Rogue River on the north, the territorial boundary on the south, the Coast Mountains west and Applegate Creek east.
    I continued my route up Illinois Creek to its head; across the divide to Smith's River in California; down Smith's River till within ten or twelve miles of Crescent City; thence S.W. to the coast; thence on the coast to our southern boundary, recrossing Smith's River fifteen miles north of Crescent City.
    On Illinois Creek and its tributaries there is considerable good farming lands, and a few claims are already taken. From this creek to Smith's River the country is mountainous and barren, with a growth of scrubby pine and spruce and a variety of underbrush, and is wholly unsuited to agriculture. But the entire country from Jacksonville to the coast is a mining region rich with gold and as such is now extensively occupied. On the trail, being the great thoroughfare from Jacksonville to Crescent City, there are houses at convenient distances for the accommodation of travelers. Near the coast and along Smith's River are tracts of excellent land, much of it covered with a dense forest of redwoods. Some trees are over twenty feet in diameter. There are a few prairies of great fertility and abounding in various kinds of luxuriant grass. About three miles north of our boundary line a stream empties into the ocean designated on the map of the coast survey as Illinois River--the Indian name Chetco. Here are many indications of having once resided a numerous people. In the fall of 1853 one Miller and several associates located land claims in this vicinity. They first built their houses about a quarter of a mile from the mouth of the river, to which the Indians made no objection. Subsequently knowing that the newly discovered mines would attract a large population, they projected a town speculation, formed an association, and selected a site at the mouth of Chetco River. The face of the country is such that the crossing must be at the mouth of the river by a ferry; here were two Indian villages on the opposite banks of the river of twenty lodges each; this ferry was of no small importance. The new town site included one of the Indian villages, and when preparations were made to erect a house within its limits the Indians strongly protested, but at last acquiescing the cabin was built and occupied by Miller.
    Hitherto the Indians had enjoyed the benefits of the ferry, but now Miller informed them that they must no longer ferry white people. They however sometimes did so and were threatened with the destruction of their lodges unless they desisted. In February last the misunderstanding grew to such a pitch that several of the men who had been engaged in fighting Indians on Smith's River were called in by Miller and quartered in his house for nearly two weeks. Becoming unwilling to tarry longer they were about to return to their homes. Miller objected to their leaving him until they had accomplished something for his relief, as on their departure he would be subjected to the same annoyance as before. Accordingly the next morning at daylight the party, consisting of 8 or 9 well-armed men, attacked the village. As the Indians came from their lodges twelve of them were shot dead by these monsters. The women and children were permitted to escape.
    Three men remained in the lodges and returned the fire with bows and arrows. Being unable to get a sight of these Indians they ordered two squaws, pets in the family of Miller, to set fire to the lodges. In the conflagration two were consumed and the third while raising his head through the flame and smoke for breath was shot dead. What adds to the atrocity of the deed is that shortly before the massacre the Indians were induced to sell the whites their guns, under the pretext that friendly relations were firmly established. The Indians kept up a random fire without effect from the opposite village during the day and at night fled to the mountains. The next day all the lodges on the north bank were burned and the day following all on the south, two excepting belonging to the friend of an Indian who acted with Miller and party. This horrible tragedy was enacted about the 15th of February and on my arrival on the 8th of May the place was in the peaceable possession of Miller. Seeing a few Indians on an island in the river I took a boat and proceeded to that point with a view of holding a talk. All except an old woman and small boy fled on my approach. With these we could only converse by signs. I gave them some presents and sent the boy to persuade the Indians to return. Another boy alone accompanied him back. I gave each a shirt and sent them again, but no others could be induced to approach us. I left a few shirts and some tobacco for the chiefs with a settler who could converse with them and directed him to tell them that I would soon send an agent to see them. After the massacre the Indians several times approached the settlement, robbed houses, and once attacked three men, but succeeded in killing none. Twenty-three Indians and several squaws were killed prior to my arrival.
    Miller was subsequently arrested and placed in the custody of the military at Port Orford, but on his examination before a justice of the peace was set at large on the grounds of justification and want of sufficient evidence to commit.
    The details of a similar occurrence at Coquille have been laid before you in a copy of the report of Special Agent F. M. Smith of the circumstantial truthfulness of which I am fully satisfied.
These narratives will give you some idea of the state of affairs in the mining districts on this coast. Arrests are evidently useless, as no act of a white man against an Indian however atrocious can be followed by a conviction.
    A detailed statement of Indian affairs in the Port Orford district will be found in the accompanying report of Agent Parrish. He enumerates twelve district bands with an aggregate population of 1311 souls and includes them all in the 
Tututni tribe. These bands however speak at least four distinct languages and but few in each band can converse with those of another. Those grouped as one band often reside in several villages. These bands are scattered over a great extent of country along the coast and upon the small streams from California to 20 miles north of the Coquille and from the ocean to the summit of the Coast Range of mountains. Several bands I visited in person and directed Mr. Taylor to accompany and assist the agent in ascertaining the numbers of the remainder. Excepting the Chetcos and the Coquilles I found these Indians at peace with the whites and among themselves. They are willing the whites should occupy their lands, provided they are permitted to retain their fisheries from which they mainly derive their subsistence. The chiefs wish their people to be taught agriculture and a few have this season planted patches of potatoes. Tobacco has long been cultivated by the bands on Rogue River. It is well tended, grows luxuriantly and is of a fine quality. These Indians are an athletic and robust race. The women perform much of the manual labor. Since the coming of the whites, many of the men have entered their employ and prove faithful and industrious. Chastity was formerly a marked trait of this tribe, and its violation on the part of the female was punished by cutting off the ears, putting out the eyes and even death. Sad changes however have taken place in this regard, and many serious difficulties have had their origin in the licentious conduct of the miners.
    The country along the coast from Umpqua River to the Ne-a-ches-na River, a distance of one hundred and twenty miles, is occupied by five bands of the Tillamook tribe. They reside on the principal streams, and all speak the same language and are peaceable, healthy and well clad, assimilating to the whites in dress obtained from their occasional visits to the settlements. The Si-u-slaw band, instructed by a French man residing among them, have commenced the cultivation of the soil and have several well-tended patches of potatoes. This band with proper care would soon become an industrious and happy community. Polygamy is common among them, one chief having eight and another six wives. Their wives are usually purchased from other bands and often reside in several distant villages. A few presents to these people gave much satisfaction.
    I have in a former communication spoken of a part of the region occupied by these bands as well suited for the colonization of the Indians found west of the Cascade Range including the Umpquas. But since my visit I am less favorably impressed. Except a few narrow margins on the coast bays and streams and some small islands, the entire country is a dense forest. Within a few years much of the timber has been destroyed by fire, and an almost impenetrable underbrush has arisen in its stead. The valleys are narrow and hemmed in by precipitous spurs of the Coast Range, rendering communication between them exceedingly difficult.
    Much of the upland is sufficiently even to admit of cultivation and has a fertile soil, but the skill, enterprise and wealth of advanced civilization alone could develop its resources. To a sparse, roaming, savage population, no portion of Oregon yields a greater abundance and variety of spontaneous products for their sustenance. Mussels deeply encase the rocks from the ocean along the coast, several species of clams abound on the beach, and crabs in the bays, while salmon, herrings, sardines and other fish in perpetual succession visit the streams. The mountains yield a profusion of berries,a nd the lowlands at the proper season swarm with wild fowl.
    Between the Siuslaw and Ne-a-ches-na is a country large enough to settle all the Indians in the Willamette, Umpqua and coast, but they would be required to live in small detached communities, in scarcely accessible valleys, and a great number of farmers, mechanics, teachers and agents would be required for their proper instruction and control.
    The transfer of Mr. Parrish to the Port Orford district leaves the Willamette Valley without an agent, and the care of the district has fallen directly on this office. My explorations in other parts of the trip prevented my visiting all bands within its limits, but their condition has changed but little since my last report.
    A treaty of purchase negotiated with the Tualatin band of Calapooias on the 25th of March last has been transmitted, accompanied by a letter explaining the causes which led to such action. Aided by the articles supplied in pursuance of this treaty, this band put in crops which compared favorably with those of their white neighbors, but unfortunately, owing to insufficient fencing, during their absence gathering berries the hogs broke in and destroyed a large part. The liberal provisions of this treaty have contributed much to incline the other tribes of this valley to enter into similar negotiations, and little difficulty will attend treaties of purchase whenever authorized. For the condition of the Indians in the sub-agency of Astoria, you are referred to the two accompanying reports of sub-agent Raymond.
    The desire of the few Indians on Clatsop Plains to remove further south, and the fact that the great body of the Indians under his care reside on Nehalem River and about Tillamook Bay, have led me to permit the sub-agent's removal to the latter point, and to extend his district further down the coast.
    The report of agent R. R. Thompson, enclosing that of the Catholic mission at the Dalles of the Columbia, is so minute and full as scarcely to render additional remark necessary. A map prepared by Major Hallar, United States army, shows the location and extent of country occupied by the various tribes of this district. I fully concur in the suggestions of Mr. Thompson in regard to the importance of increasing the present military force in middle Oregon by a body of dragoons, so stationed as to move with celerity upon any point threatened with hostilities. To this end, I would respectfully recommend that a military post be established as far east as Boise River. The security it would afford travelers passing through that region; its proximity to the numerous bands inhabiting the country along Lewis's fork, or Snake River and its tributaries; its being near the forks of the road diverging into northern and middle Oregon; and the probability of a third road on the north side of Snake River, passing through the valley of Salmon River into the Nez Perces country and Washington Territory--render this, in a military point of view, an important position. [Material in italics above and below is taken from a version online, to restore a page missing from the Lane papers.]
    Extensive meadows on Boise River would afford abundant supplies of grass and hay for whatever amount of stock might be brought into requisition, and it is believed that the soil, besides producing the usual varieties of cereal grains, is well adapted to the growth of vegetables usual in the northern states.
    Cavalry alone can be effectively used in the required service. The expense of this class of troops at so remote a point will be great, but this will not certainly be regarded as a serious obstacle, when it affords the only means of securing the lives and property of our citizens from the violence and cupidity of the ruthless savage.
    So long as these Indians remain occupants of that district unrestrained by the military arm, we may expect robbery and bloodshed, as they increase yearly in skill and boldness, and are more abundantly supplied with arms and ammunition by imprudent emigrants and reckless traders.
    Should it nevertheless be considered inadvisable to establish a permanent post so far inland, it would appear absolutely necessary to detail a company of mounted men each year to scour the country between Grand Ronde and Fort Hall during the transit of the emigration.
    Official information has been received that an emigrant train has been cut off this season by these savages; eight men have been murdered, and four women and a number of children taken captive, to endure sufferings and linger out an existence more terrible than death. Of this party a lad wounded and left for dead by the Indians alone survives; other trains may meet a similar fate, and none be left to tell the tale. 
    East of the Cascade Mountains and south of the 44th parallel is a country not attached particularly to any agency. That portion of the eastern base of this range extending twenty-five or thirty miles east and south to the California line is the country of the Klamath Indians. East of this tribe along our southern boundary and extending some distance into California is a tribe known as the Modocs. They speak the same language as the Klamaths. East of these again but extending farther south are the Mo-e-twas. These two last named tribes have always evinced a deadly hostility to the whites and have probably committed more outrages than any other interior tribe. The Modocs boast, the Klamaths told me, of having within the last four years murdered thirty-six whites.
    East of these tribes and extending to our eastern limits are the Sho-sho-nes, Snakes or Diggers. Little is known of their numbers or history. They are cowardly, but often attack weaker parties, and never fail to avail themselves of a favorable opportunity for plunder. Their country is a desert, with an occasion spot of verdure on the margins of lakes or in deep ravines and chasms.
    Dry, sandy plains of artemisia; lofty, rugged barren mountains, and chasms of fearful depth threaded by rivers, are the prominent features of this region. Though uninviting and unsuited for the abode of man or animal, the romance and novelty may allure some western adventurer to fix his domicile in these wastes and afford shelter and protection to the weary wayfarer to these western shores.
    On a recent visit to Klamath Lake, I assembled a considerable portion of the Klamaths and entered into a conventional arrangement or treaty of peace, which I believe them inclined to observe. Every manifestation was given by them that such was their desire. Messengers were sent to the Modocs and Moetwas and to the Snakes bordering these tribes, and I confidentially believe little trouble will this year be given the emigration in that quarter.
    The Klamaths were once numerous, but wars with the surrounding tribes and conflicts among themselves have rendered them weak. They now number but four hundred and fifteen souls. Seven villages are around Klamath Lake; ten on a stream called Pli-ac Creek east of the lake, three on To-qua Lake, and one on Co-as-to Lake. Their lodges are generally mere temporary structures, scarcely sheltering them from the pelting storm. Some of them have visited the settlements and obtained tents, camp equipage and clothing.
    They possess a few horses and among them I saw four guns, but they had no ammunition. The bow and arrow, knife and war club constitute their weapons. In one of their lodges I noticed an elk-skin shield, so constructed as to be impervious to the sharpest arrows.
    Their principal food is the camas root, and the seed obtained from a plant growing in the marshes of the lake resembling before hulled a broom corn seed. This seed is encased in a pod of the shape and size of the bell pepper. It is gathered in great quantities.
    Klamath Lake or marsh affords no fish, but To-qua Lake and the stream draining Klamath, below the falls, fifteen miles distant, abounds in suckers of a fine quality. A few antelope are found in the plains and on the mountains around.
    Yellow and sugar pine with spruce constitute the principal varieties of timber, the two former sometimes of immense size. On the elevated table lands skirting the base of the Cascade Range, extending south from the Ta-ih more than a hundred miles, the juniper, yielding vast quantities of berries, abounds.
    Klamath Lake has been represented as the source of Des Chutes or Fall River, and also of a stream flowing south into the bay of San Francisco. None of its waters flow north. A high timbered plain of more than twenty miles in width, strewn with pumice stone, extending from the Cascade Mountains eastwardly a great distance, intervenes between this lake or marsh and the Des Chutes. The last-named river has its source in the mountains twenty or thirty miles northwest of Klamath Lake.
The waters of this lake from its outlet have a southerly course for about twenty-five miles, where they expand into To-qua Lake, a large sheet of water bordered by beautiful meadows, and having an arm extending some miles to the northwest, called Lake Co-as-ta.. Leaving To-qua the course of the river is east of south twenty or twenty-five miles into a lake called by the Indians An-coose. This lake, margined by extensive tulé marshes, lies east of the course of the stream known thence as the Klamath River. Its course is first northwesterly, then west through the Shasta country to the ocean. It is thought the 42nd parallel of latitude lies between To-qua and An-coose lakes. The stream on which is the Natural Bridge, improperly so called, being a ledge of rock resting in the deep the channel and forming a ford, over which the southern Oregon road passes, leads east of Toqua Lake, and is called by the Indians Tak-a-licks. It empties into the Mo-doc, or, as called by the whites, Tulé Lake, which, like many others in this region, has no visible outlet. From the Natural Bridge the road passes round the southern end of Ancoose Lake, where it forks; the one road leads northerly across Klamath River, over the mountains, to the settlements near the head of Bear or Stuart's Creek, in the Rogue River Valley; the other to Y-re-ka, in California.
    The country around Ancoose and Modoc lakes is claimed and occupied by the Modoc Indians, the Klamaths seldom traveling so far south.
    A partial examination of the country around Klamath and Toqua lakes and their tributaries has impressed me favorably with the region as suited to the colonization of the Indians of the Willamette and Umpqua valleys. The only obstacles to be apprehended are the severity of the winters and the depth of the snows, resulting from its elevation. These may not prove serious: No white man has, I believe, wintered there; but the frail, open huts in which the natives reside indicate a favorable climate.
    An abundance of nutritious grasses borders these lakes and streams, a few specimens of which have been sent to your office. The soil is rich, and appears suited to the growth of the cereals and the usual productions of the garden. These fertile plats probably embrace an area of one hundred and fifty square miles, being ample to sustain, besides the native bands, the entire Indian population of these two valleys.
    Isolated and remote from other tracts adapted to settlement, this region seems peculiarly marked out as the asylum of these remnants of the aborigines. On the north and east, and on the south, a few fertile spots excepted, lies a vast desert waste. On the west rises a lofty range of mountains, often towering above the line of perpetual snow, only to be traversed in the summer months, and then with great danger and toil. All necessary supplies could, at the proper season, be transported from the Willamette Valley over the mountains by the middle road to the crossing of the Des Chutes, whence a good wagon road may be easily opened to Klamath Lake--distant about 40 miles.
    The Indians of the two valleys have heretofore generally expressed a decided opposition to removing east of the Cascade Mountains, but I am persuaded their consent can now be easily obtained, should such become the policy of the government, and proper guarantees of sustenance and protection be given. The district recommended is not so remote as to prevent their occasional visits to the settlements--a privation which, having become accustomed to mingle with the whites, they would regard as a great calamity.
    In my first annual report I recommended the appointment of three agents and four sub-agents. I am deeply impressed with the importance of at least this number, in order properly to occupy the field of duty. One of the sub-agents should, as heretofore, have charge of the Indians in the Willamette Valley and those on the southern bank of the Columbia from the Cascade Falls to Oak Point. The other three should be stationed at eligible points on the coast. Our Pacific border is not less than 350 miles in extent; with occasional intervals of no more than twenty miles in a place, the whole is occupied by Indians.
    The whites are also established at several points along this coast engaged in mining, commerce and agriculture, and between them and the natives difficulties often arise requiring the prompt intervention of an agent. The ruggedness of the country and distance to be traveled render a less number on the coast wholly inadequate to efficient action. The Umpqua Valley should be reannexed to the agency of Rogue River Valley. The country east of the Cascade Range erected into two agency districts, divided by the forty-fourth parallel of latitude.
    The extent of the territory, the hostile character of the Indians, and the fact that three routes of immigration to our shores traverse almost the entire distance from east to west, render the establishment of two agencies in that region of Oregon, in my opinion, very important. The agent for the southeastern district should at present reside in the vicinity of the Klamath Lake.
    Should the country around Klamath and Toqua lakes be designated as an Indian settlement, the establishment for a few years of an efficient force of mounted men, within a convenient distance to afford security to the agent and other employees, as well as those passing through the country, and to enforce obedience to the laws and regulations of the government, would be indispensable. But should a military post be established on Boise River, as suggested, and an adequate force stationed at Fort Lane, small parties of soldiers traversing the country between these points, diverging to the right and left, during the summer season, would, it is believed, be sufficient to secure safety and order. [Section deleted from text; paragraph substituted from final version.]
    Treaties for the purchase of the country of the more numerous and warlike tribes of this territory, and the removal and concentration of all at suitable and convenient points, where the agents of the government can watch over, instruct, and protect them, and thus convince them of our humane intentions, can alone secure peace while they exist, or elevate them in the social scale above their present savage state.
    When thus collected and colonized, Congress should enact a wise and equitable, yet stringent code of laws for their government, at first to be administered wholly by citizens of the United States. But as the Indians advanced in civilization and intelligence, let the administration of the laws pass into their own hands; and so also the other powers of government, until they should at last be vested with power to enact and administer all their local and municipal regulations.
    Such a code as I have recommended, superseding their chieftain rule, their tribal distinctions, and savage customs, will alone be of permanent advantage, and restrain them from petty thefts, plunder and violence, deeds which their savage minds regard as tending to ennoble rather than degrade.
    I have been unable to prepare an entirely accurate enumeration of all the tribes and bands in this superintendency, but the accompanying table is believed to approximate very nearly the actual number of Indians in this territory. I also transmit a table showing the size and other characteristics of Indians, with remarks, taken by Mr. Oris Taylor in the Port Orford district; also, a list of many words in the language of the Rogue River tribe.
    A map showing the boundaries of the several districts, and the locations of the various bands and tribes, is in progress of preparation, and will be transmitted to you at an early day.
    The whole amount of receipts for current expenses in this superintendency within the year ending June 30, 1854, is . . . $28,230.77
    The disbursements from June 23rd, 1853, to June 30, 1854 is
. . . $34,014.22⅓
    Leaving an excess of disbursements over receipts of
. . . $5,783.45⅓
    The amount of liabilities [of] this superintendency for salaries, presents, traveling and incidental expenses up to the 30th June last will exceed eight thousand dollars over and above the claims referred to in a letter from this office dated July 25th, 1854.
    The following estimates are submitted for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1856.
    Salary of superintendent and three agents
. . . $7,000.00
    Salary of four sub-agents and ten interpreters
. . . $8,000.00
    Clerk hire; house and office rent, light and stationery of superintendent; and office rent for agents and sub-agents
. . . $4,000.00
    Contingent and incidental expenses
. . . $4,500.00
    Presents and provisions for Indians
. . . $3,000.00
    Building two agents' houses and offices, one in Rogue River district, the other in the proposed southeastern district
. . . $3,000.00
    Payment of annuities to Rogue River and Cow Creek bands
. . . $3,050.00
    Traveling expenses of superintendent, agents, and sub-agents
. . . $6,500.00
    Farmhouse and outbuildings on Table Rock reserve . . . $2,000.00
    Pay of farmers on Table Rock reserve
. . . $1,000.00
    For erection of smith shop & purchase of iron and tools for same, and pay of smith
. . . $1,550.00
    Total
. . . $43,600.00
    In reference to the superintendency house at Milwaukie, I would reiterate the language of my letter of the 27 May, 1853:
    "The present building, in construction and style of finish, is fitted only for a private residence, and possesses none of the conveniences suitable for an office. This house is so constructed as to require in order to furnish it suitably an outlay of means unwarranted by the limited salary of the superintendent. I feel quite confident that a location more central and much more convenient for the superintendent, agents, and Indians who may visit the superintendency, can be made; and that the necessary buildings--dwelling-house, office, warehouse and other conveniences--can be erected at a less cost than that incurred in the erection of this house alone."
    I would therefore recommend the sale of said building, and the lot of four acres of land whereon it is erected, and the application of the proceeds to the erection of suitable buildings for the use of the superintendency, at some point hereafter to be selected.
Respectfully submitted :
JOEL PALMER,
Superintendent.



Salem Oregon Sept. 14th 1854
Dear Genl.,
    Yours of August 3rd came to hand per last mail. I regret to hear of your ill health and trust that you may speedily recover.
    The news of Guthrie's & Wilcox' appointment was received by the last mail. The latter appointment gives great satisfaction here. I wish I could say as much of the former. It is regarded here as a very unfortunate selection in many respects. Others more capable and who had rendered service to the party think that their claims had been overlooked. I think that I can appreciate your situation, as I am led to suppose that Guthrie's appointment is more the result of his uncle's position than of your recommendation.
    I called on Mr. Guthrie last week to see what he intends doing in relation to the debts which I understand he assumed for the milling company. He informed me that he never agreed to pay but three eighths of those debts, and that he had already done so, and that he was under no obligation to pay my demand and should not do so. This as a matter of course astonished me as it was my understanding that he and Farrar assumed the debts. My demand is $1060 money actually loaned to Nat to prosecute the business of the company. It is drawing nominally no interest while I am compelled to pay three percent per month.
    I regard this as rather a hard case and would be glad if you could suggest what I had better do in the matter. I have purchased a farm and am in great want of the money but shall have to want it worse than I ever did before I ask Guthrie for it again. If my recourse was against him I should lose no time in trying to secure my rights. Farrar I think is an honest man and manifests no disposition to avoid his share of the responsibility in the matter, but is too poor to do anything. I regret that I should be compelled to trouble you about this matter, but my necessities are my only apology, besides I have exhausted my resources with Guthrie. He says that you deceived him in relation to the property and the amount of the debts, but I know that this is only an excuse to avoid their payment.
    John is attending school. He commenced boarding last week with a mess composed of young men who board themselves in the Institute building. My wife's health is so poor that it is inconvenient to keep boarders. Lafayette returned a few days ago from home with Mr. Floed, and they have now gone on a visit to Portland. Lafayette says that he is agoing to attend a school near home this winter.
    You need give yourself no uneasiness about John's wants (or Lafayette if he stops here). I shall keep him supplied as long as I have anything.
    You will see by the Oregon papers that the Indians have massacred some of the emigrants near Fort "Boise" on Snake River. Curry is waiting to hear more definite news and will perhaps order out a detachment of volunteers, in which case I shall accompany them.
    We are in a deplorable state here for the want of arms and ammunition; cannot you take some steps to have the War Department supply us with our quota of the public arms so that we can defend ourselves in cases of emergency?
I remain sincerely
    Your friend
        J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Salem Sept. 24th 1854
Dear Genl.,
    By this mail you will learn of the massacre of a portion of the emigrants near Fort Boise on Snake River.
    I was absent attending court at Lafayette when Gov. Curry issued his proclamation. Curry acted promptly and with the best intention, but I think ill-advisedly. The proclamation was countermanded at my urgent request, and you will see my reasons therefor at length in the Statesman.
    I am satisfied that you will not differ with me in relation to the expediency of a winter campaign in that cold and desolate region. You are perhaps aware that the Blue Mountains are impassable from snow for the greater part of the winter and the season is now too far advanced to forward up supplies from this valley before the mountains become impassable. The army officers deny the immediate necessity of the [paper loss] refuse their cooperation
[paper loss].
    There should be an expedition sent against those Indians next spring which would exterminate them and protect the next year's emigration. The men can be easily raised in this valley if Congress will only furnish the munitions of war for its prosecution. Cannot something of the kind be authorized at an early day after the meeting of Congress?
    At any rate we should be supplied with arms and ammunition.
    Bush has spoken to me in relation to the propriety of hoisting your name for next President. I may be in error, but I am inclined to think that it would do you no good, while its tendency would be to do you a positive injury here if as he tells me you contemplate running for Delegate again.
    I understand that Pratt says that he intends to be the next Delegate and that he has written to you to decline in his favor! Rather a modest request, which if complied with on your part I think will do him but little good as the people and the party here 
[paper loss] recognize your right to sell [paper loss] transfer them in any way. Besides I doubt if Pratt could obtain the nomination with all your influence on his side. There is no doubt but what that he has rendered important services to the party here, and there is as little doubt about his being determined that they should forget it. He is continually trying to make his private grievances an issue in the party and thrusts them forward on all occasions, and finding that the party care nothing about them, he says that he is determined to vindicate himself.
    You know that his inordinate love of money together with his shaming propensities are sufficient to make any man unpopular. Those things together with his vanity counteract much of his usefulness. This as a matter of course is confidential. As I harbor no enmity towards Pratt I consequently have no desire to injure him.
    John is well and attending closely to his books.
Yours so in haste
    J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.



Corvallis Septr. 28th 1854
Dear Father
    I have two letters from you unanswered. I will try in this to reply to both. I have furnished Melissa with all the goods she has wanted up to the present. She sent me word yesterday that she would be down soon to lay in her winter supply. I don't suppose she will take up in money and goods an amount to exceed two hundred dollars in all. I have distributed those documents according to your request.
    I discover that Pratt and other Democrats are trying to create a prejudice unfavorable to you, and to induce the Democrats to believe that you don't do as much for Oregon as might be done by one O. C. Pratt. One way they have taken is this: to make the Democrats believe you are seeking the nomination for President and that, they say, is the reason you got Guthrie appointed Receiver, in order to secure his uncle's influence and secure for yourself the Kentucky delegation in the next convention. You know your business, but I would suggest to be careful who you correspond with and what you say to those you do write to.
    Bush is all right so far, but in my opinion they will have him over before the convention meets. I understand Nesmith is all right. I know Palmer and Curry are for you. Nesmith told me he had written to you to know certain whether or not you would be a candidate. He said he wanted to know where to place himself this time. If I were you I would answer all alike that they might give you the nomination or let it alone, just as they pleased.
    The "Know Nothings" have organized in Portland and in Oregon City, and I am inclined to think they will take all over the Territory, and I fear will exert a strong influence in our next election. I should not be surprised if they carry the entire Territory, Delegate and all. I am satisfied they will have influence enough to beat all such Democratic nominees as O. C. Pratt Esqr.; therefore, if I were you I would lie back and look at the race. You may say this is not very Democratic in me, but I do assure you I am tired of all such party organizations as those that have to use so much intrigue, lying and rascality as our would-be leaders and rulers out here have to do to secure their own aggrandizement. I do think the Democratic Party in Oregon is made of the poorest, hackneyed, rotten-hearted set of office-seeking sons of bitches I ever knew. You know that I don't seek nor would not have an office, and therefore these intrigues look worse to me perhaps than they do to office-hunters. I am satisfied that every effort will be made to secure Pratt the nomination by his (Pratt's) proselytes. I wish you were in a condition to retire from public life. I would then suggest that we all emigrated to some quiet little valley in a pleasant part of California where we might cultivate the soil and have our little herd of cattle, horses and sheep and live a quiet, happy life and be free and far away from this Oregon Democracy.
    Business in this country is dull, money exceedingly scarce. I have been doing a very good little business since I came up here. I make money slow, but I save what is made. You must write to me when you get this. I will write oftener in the future. I understand that Mr. Farrar is down on you about that mill trade, says you was the means of breaking him up &c. &c. But he is small potatoes, in my opinion. I hope you will never induce another man, woman or child to come to Oregon. They are sure to become your enemies after getting here unless they are old and tried friends. Below I give three names that I want you to send documents to (address Corvallis). You will remember of seeing the two first ones in Petersburg. James Kinney, John Murray and Wm. Elliott. Since writing the above I have been told that Pratt does intend to be a candidate before the convention whether you decline or not, and also that Kelly of Oregon City will be put forth by Clackamas County, and Farrar will receive the vote of Washington County and Delazon Smith the vote of Linn County. So you see your chances for renomination are small.
    But as I said above I am of the opinion that, through the influence of the "Know Nothings," the Whigs will elect their candidate, and if I was you I wouldn't care if I didn't get the nomination. Though I would not decline in favor of any candidate. I would let my name go before the convention and there test who is the strongest Democrat in Oregon.
    Floed passed through here the other day accompanied by Mary, Winnie and Lafayette on their way to the Umpqua, all in good health. Floed and Simon are doing well, making money fast. Shelby I think will remain in Portland. He is doing very well there. Andy was down once this summer; he seemed to be very well satisfied. He thinks Oregon will do.
    Produce is worth nothing. I have refused the best kind of flour at 2½ cts. per pound, paid in goods. Butter is worth 20 to 25 cts. in goods. Everything is down. Beef will sell, but is only worth 6 cts. on foot. We have a little boy born I think since my last; he is now four months old, weighs about 20# net.
Your obt. son
    Nat. H. Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Copy.
War Department
    Washington 29 Sept. 1854
Sir
    I return herewith the report from your office of the 7 inst. upon the claim of Jesse Robinson for supplies furnished the troops engaged in the Rogue River War, for which provision is made by the act approved 17 July 1854.
    This report, in recommending the allowance of certain items, proceeds on the assumption that the quantity of forage for which claims have been presented is not more than the troops were entitled to under the regulations of the U.S. army. On the other hand, by computations made in the office of the Quartermaster General, it appears that the quantity for which payment is claimed is greatly in excess of the quantity required for issue, and the same is true in respect to the subsistence. I shall however regard the certificate of the quartermaster & commissary appointed by Capt. Alden & Genl. Lane as evidence of the quantities of supplies delivered to him and now to be paid for, but as regards their value, which is not like quantity a question of measure & weight, but one of skill and judgment, a discretion is to be exercised in the settlement, and I send a copy of a report of Capt. Alden upon this point for your information, as well as a copy of the report of this Department, in answer to a resolution of Congress calling for information in regard to these claims.
    With reference to the mode of reporting these claims for the action of this Department under the act above titled I would prefer a general statement of all the claims exhibiting the name of each claimant, items claimed, prices charged and prices recommended for allowance, omitting the evidence in support of the claim, and other particulars, which will have been fully considered by you before making your report.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Jeffer. Davis
            Secretary of War
Hon. Robt. J. Atkinson
    Third Auditor

Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library 



Indian Agency
    Rogue River Valley
        September 30, 1854
Sir,
    As directed, I make a quarterly return of the manner in which each employee within this agency discharges his duty.
    Ben, an Indian, is my interpreter for the Rogue River tribe. He is well qualified and faithful.
    Alva Huddleston, Theodore Huddleston and Francis Huddleston were employed, originally, to work on the Table Rock Indian Reserve for and on account of [the] treaty of 10th September 1854. But as the labor performed by them did not equal my idea of propriety, they were discharged the earliest moment practicable. They were only retained in service after planting, long enough to gather hay for the horses in constant use at the agency, and in case it should be necessary enough to keep the cattle that belong to the reserve from starving the coming winter. (There was no money on hand to buy it, nor could other persons be hired without the money to pay them as they worked.)
    An equitable division of the expenses I deem to be that the wages and other expenses of the Huddlestons to 30 June be charged "in and on account of treaty," and all after that date "to the current expenses of the agency."
    Alva Huddleston was discharged on the 3rd and Theodore and Francis Huddleston were discharged on the 25 July last.
Respectfully,
    Your obt srvt
        S. H. Culver
            Indian Agent
Joel Palmer
Supt Ind Affrs
Dayton, Yamhill Co
Oregon Territory



Salem Oregon October 2nd 1854
Dear Genl.
    Yours of August 13th came to hand by the last mail, and gave us pleasure to learn that you were recovering from your illness.
    I had written you some time before Bush's arrival asking to know your wishes in relation to the next Delegateship. Your present letter answers my inquiry on that subject. Bush has shown me a letter which he received by last mail in which you express your desire for a renomination more urgently than in the one you wrote to me, and from which it appears that certain persons have been unremitting in their endeavors to impress your mind with the idea that there is a combination among politicians here to break you down and elect some one of their own number in your place. Mr. Cason is an excellent man and incapable of a dishonest act. He has doubtless written you what he conceives to be the truth; however you should bear in mind that he is rather domestic in his habits and consequently has but little opportunity for knowing public opinion. Of Mr. Dunbar I know but little, and that to his prejudice. My opinion of the man is that disingenuousness and selfishness enter largely into his composition. He may be honest in what he has written and in so doing probably reflects to some extent the opinions of the narrow circle to which his observation is confined. He is one of your admirers, and while his efforts in your behalf can possibly do you no good, he doubtless expects someday to turn his admiration to profitable account.
    I have no doubt but what you are continually beset by correspondents who would like to frighten you with bugbears and magnify their own consequence by continual representations of their own devotion to your interests. How far such representations may influence you in your actions towards your real friends who are capable of rendering you assistance is a matter about which I have given myself no trouble.
    So far as your general course has been concerned, allow me to say that it has given the most eminent satisfaction to the great body of the party here, or at least to that branch of it to which you would naturally look for support. True, it is not to be disguised that many of your old and tried friends are dissatisfied with Guthrie's appointment, but not to such an extent as to array them against you. The fruits of that appointment are not so apparent as they will be when he comes to assume the duties of the office and be brought in contact with the people. The short of the matter is, Genl., that he did not deserve the appointment either from past services or present devotion to the party while others did; besides the man is a disgusting fool, and as I know to the tune of about eleven hundred dollars a dishonest damned knave.
    Another cause of dissatisfaction I am told exists against you in the Umpqua which is this, that the Democratic Party have been laboring for three years to put down Jesse Applegate and his influence and that now to their astonishment the said Jesse exhibits letters from you in which you extol him to the skies and promise him the appointment of surveyor on the military road, and that he shall control the disbursements of the money. At the same time he laughs at your credulity in attempting to buy up his influence, and says that he would not vote for you to save your life, and at the same time taunts Democrats by telling them that he is your confidential adviser and defies them to break down his influence with you. How far these things are true you of course know best. I am aware that you have always admired the man's talents, but supposed that your knowledge of his political dishonesty would prevent you from placing any confidence in his representations.
    I have been thus candid with you in order that you might know what I think your position here actually is. In reference to a renomination I can see nothing at present to prevent your obtaining it. The masses of the people are with you and so are the majority of the politicians who have influence. If this state of things is changed before the convention meets it will be the result of some improvident act of your own, which I think not likely to occur.
    Judge Pratt is here in town and makes no hesitation in announcing himself as a candidate. He told me this morning in the presence of Bush that he should submit his name to the convention. How far he may be induced in the accomplishment of his own purposes to take a position hostile to you is a matter of which I at present know nothing. Doubtless he will try his utmost for success. If you see proper to go into the convention against him I have no doubt of the result, and if you even go so far as to withdraw in his favor I doubt even then of his success.
    In six weeks from this time I shall probably forward my resignation of the office of Marshal to the President. I find that the office is perfectly worthless, and it will be worth less next year as the emoluments by operation of the act of Congress of Feb. 1853 reduces them fifty percent after next Feb.; besides my own private affairs demand my attention. I have purchased a farm about eight miles from here in Polk County, and shall move onto it next summer. It is the east half of old man Goff's claim. I have been unsuccessful in collecting the pay for my mill. What little ready means I had I loaned to friends, who appear to give themselves but little trouble about the matter, and the consequence is that I am driven to the extremity of going to work to earn a livelihood.
    I again find myself under the necessity of calling your attention to my demands against the milling company for the money advanced to Nat and for which I hold his note as agent for the company. I have used every endeavor in my power to collect the money without causing you any trouble. Your friend Mr. Guthrie once told me last spring that "he had undertaken to pay those debts and would do so when it was convenient but that he should not be hurried about the matter," but he now says that he never agreed to pay them and shall not do it. You know that my demand is not against him, consequently I cannot compel him to pay. Nat says that he cannot pay it, and that Guthrie has agreed to do so. The result is that I am kept out of the money and my family deprived of what justly belongs to them. If under the circumstances you can do anything to relieve me it will be taken as a great favor, or if you desire me to contribute to the luxury and support of that sprig of aristocracy, Mr. Guthrie, by my hard earnings I will take pleasure in presenting him with the demand upon your saying so.
I remain truly
    Your friend
        J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Jacksonville Oregon, Oct. 8, 1854
Dear General:
    On my return a few days since from Yreka, where I had been on a visit, I was astonished to hear of the suspension by Gen. Palmer of Mr. Culver as Indian agent on very serious charges, and I was still more astonished at the manner in which it had been done.
    It was but a matter of simple justice that Mr. Culver should have had an opportunity to defend himself before his sentence was passed upon him. As to the charges themselves, you will see by the report of the committee who undertook to examine them that they were totally unfounded and made by worthless, irresponsible men.
    You will know that I was not at first very favorably disposed towards Mr. Culver and doubted his fitness for that appointment, but I must say that my views on that point have wholly changed. I have watched the management of the Indians very closely and have been a good deal among them since you left, and I am satisfied that he alone has prevented an outbreak during the present year. You no doubt remember the state of feeling here when you left on the subject of Indians; that same feeling continued for months, and many were the threats of extermination as soon as the winter set in. All that is now changed. When the Indians commit any depredations, the whites wait patiently for redress through the Indian agent. We hear no more war talk and cursing the treaty, and on the other hand depredations by the Indians are rare and promptly punished. This change, so happy in its effects, has been mainly brought about by the quiet but decisive course of Mr. Culver. He has not thought proper to consult with every man he met in the streets about his course, but has pursued a settled course of policy, which has secured the entire confidence of both the whites and the Indians. His office has been no sinecure; he has had innumerable talks with the chiefs, and some fighting last winter, and we were on the very point of a war this summer with all the wheat crop lying out in the field, brought about by Bob Williams and another man having murdered two Indians, both about the same time, and still we are at peace. And all this time we have been left without any adequate military force.
    Now as Mr. Culver has so long carried us through, I most sincerely hope he will be continued. You know how much we have to dread from a change of agents. It will have a very bad effect upon the Indians even if the new appointee should have every requisite qualification.
    I know not if there is any political cause for this suspension, and I know nothing of Mr. Culver's political course theretofore, but I do know that he used every effort to secure the election of the whole Democratic ticket last spring and to induce the Democrats to favor the "convention."
    By the by, I was bound there to go against it, but the next time I shall be with you on that question, and I am satisfied that will carry the next time.
    I am engaged in practicing law here and hope to make some money this winter. Give my respects to Pugh &
Believe me
    Yours truly
        L. F. Mosher
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs   
    Dayton O T Oct 10th, 1854   
To all whom it may concern
    I have this day and by those present do authorize Nat Lane, of the town of Corvallis, to sell or trade to the Indians visiting that town arms and ammunition in such limited quantities only as may be requisite to enable them to kill game for food; but those to whom it is sold must be made to understand that the continuance of this privilege will depend on their good conduct and that it is not to be given, sold or traded by them to other Indians.
    In determining as to the quantity to be supplied them at any one time, you will take into consideration the number of persons depending on them for food, their necessities, as well as the character of those for whom it may be furnished, so that no aid may be extended to those disposed to be unfriendly with the whites.
Joel Palmer
    Superintendent
Nat Lane Esq
    Corvallis
        O.T.


Jacksonville O.T. Oct 11th 1854       
Dear General [Palmer?]
    Yours of the 12th ult has just come to hand. I had written to you by express before receiving an answer to my first, and must apologize for making a request the second time for what is due me from [the] government. I supposed that the same appropriation that would pay the bills for farming etc. would pay mine, but your better judgment thinks not and I am satisfied. I hear that John Miller is appointed agent instead of Culver; there was a petition gotten up here last winter and sent on to Congress requesting the Superintendent of Indian Affairs to give me that appointment, but there being no charge against Culver he still held the office, and now I most sincerely believe there are two thirds of the miners and settlers that are in favor of my having the office. This can be shown by a second petition which I will send you should it meet with your approbation. I have just received a letter from Gen. Lane I will write to him relative to the appointment. John Miller is very much of a gentleman and is worthy of any office, but he is a man in affluent circumstances and no better qualified for the office than others who are poor and oppressed. I have had two claims taken from me for Indian reserves, one here and one in Scotts Valley, which would be worth ten thousand dollars now with the improvements I should have been able to have put on them, but the misfortune is my own fault and I quietly submit myself.
    Your most obt servant
        R. B. Metcalfe



Salem Oregon October 20th 1854
Dear Genl.:
    Your note of Sept. 2nd containing Mrs. Real's receipt for the Globe, together with your long and kind letter of August 30th, was received per last mail. I fully appreciate and sincerely thank you for the kindness which you manifest in offering to try to have my pay as Marshal increased, but, Genl., I know what obstacles always attend a measure of that kind, and shall be compelled to decline becoming the recipient of your generous offer.
    I find myself so situated that it is absolutely necessary for the interests of my family that I should engage in some reliable business which will be more certain its rewards than any feeble-tenured, non-paying office, and have accordingly determined to adopt the most honorable and independent of vocations by becoming an honest farmer. With this view I have purchased 320 acres of deeded land in Polk County, which I am now improving, and shall move onto it next summer.
    Having after mature deliberation adopted this plan, I herewith forward you my resignation which I trust you will lose no time in presenting to the President. It is of the greatest importance that my successor should be appointed as early as possible, and I trust that you will lose no time in urging it upon the President.
    After casting about I cannot think of any person better qualified to fill the place than John McCracken, besides being active and efficient, as a Democrat, and good business man. He is a warm friend of yours and I think deserves the office. I shall be pleased and I think the party satisfied if you can succeed in procuring him the place.
    I also herewith enclose to you a letter for Mr. Whittlesey, which you will oblige me by delivering. I should not trouble you with those comments were it not of importance to me that my resignation to the President and communication to the Comptroller should be received simultaneously, and I know of no more certain way to accomplish it than by sending them to you. Now for God's sake, Genl., lose no time in attending to this matter, as I shall soon have my accounts closed up, and wish to get the business off my hands before the spring term of the courts are holden, as about that time I hope to be planting my potatoes and other "crap" [sic].
    His ex-honor Judge Pratt has taken the field in right good earnest, and is traveling all over the country using every exertion to secure his nomination and election as next Delegate. He has but few strong friends or ardent admirers who will be willing to work for him. His great wealth will not be made available in this contest, as he is too penurious to use it. His principal reliance for success depends upon his individual energies and exertions, and even these may make him a formidable opponent, as you know he is most indefatigable in whatever he undertakes. While present appearances do not indicate to my mind any great probability of his success, yet there is no telling what may turn up. Allow me to urge upon you the necessity of making every exertion in your power to retain the advantage, which you evidently have with the people at present.
    A friendly and well-timed letter does much with such men as Fred Wymire of Polk, Delazon Smith of Linn, Col. Geo. K. Shiel of this place, Capt. English of this county, H. N. V. Holmes of Polk, the Shermans of this county, and many others whom I could name who have influence that would be felt in the convention. N. Huber and a Mr. Brandon, both young lawyers at Lafayette, and Fulkerson of Polk are men that you would do well to write to.
    Give them a damned
slew of documents and papers. Such attentions are sometimes flattering. I do not speak of those things on my own account, notwithstanding it always give me pleasure to hear from you, yet I would rather that you would lavish such little attentions where they would do more good. Dr. McLoughlin I suppose will go for Pratt and try to carry the French influence with him. You can counteract much of his influence with them by making some exertion with Doctor Shiel of Champoeg and his brother George K. Shiel of this place. Narcisse Cornoyer and Foisey have great influence with the French voters. Cornoyer was out at Rogue River in my company. He is now wavering between you and Pratt. When the pay is allowed for his services in the R.R. war it will furnish you a good pretext to write him a letter which will fasten him. Address him and M. G. Foisey at this place.
    Keep as clear of Jesse Applegate as God will let you. Gibbs at the mouth of the Umpqua is a strong Pratt man and is down on you because you did not have his salary raised. Chadwick of Scottsburg can counteract much of his influence. You had better secure him, however you must recollect that he and many others of the prominent Democrats of Umpqua are down on Applegate. You can't have the friendship of both
    As I have told you before, the appointment of that damned Guthrie is your worst and most unfortunate act; however Wilcox' appointment may have some tendency to make the thing less odious.
    I would suggest that in getting the appropriation for completing the statehouse and penitentiary you have the act so worded that the appropriation will be made to complete those buildings, now commenced, at "Salem and [illegible]" by reference to the U.S. statutes.
    You will observe that it is the usual course, and will prevent the question of the location of the public buildings being an eternal question for division in the party.
    I think it extremely doubtful about our being able to have the election deferred as you have suggested. All the Whigs and all of Pratt's friends in the legislature will oppose it, as neither of them are particularly anxious that you should have much to do with the people before the convention or election is holden. If the election is not put off the convention must be held at least as early as the first of April, and it is highly important to your success that you should be here before that time.
    I don't care anything about the Daily Globe being sent to me in sheets but would like to have it and the Opportunity in the bound volumes at the close of the sessions. I have tried for ten years to secure them in this shape, but without success. Will you buy them and a copy of the census report of 1850 and send them to me?
    John is getting along finely with his studies. I will attend to his wants and do everything for him in my power.
    Bush has taken to himself a sleeping partner; the young man's legs are swelled up as big as broomsticks and he looks white about the gills. "Hot cock" has fell 50 percent among the Siwash tribe since he married. As soon as I am a little better acquainted with the madam I shall give her some account of the whorehouse adventures of Bush and yourself in Washington.
    Send papers and documents among others to James Costello at Champoeg. He is a man of influence in that end of the county.
I remain yours
    In haste
        J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Letter from Gen. Lane.
Washington City,
    October 29th, 1854.
    EDITOR STATESMAN--Dear Sir:--I must confess that I am both surprised and pained to hear that there is, among Democrats, dissatisfaction and complaining of my official acts. Why, or how, this can be, I am at a loss to understand; for God knows that my strongest earthly desire is to faithfully and honestly discharge my duty to the people I represent, and in such manner as is best calculated to promote their interests. For the promotion of this great object, I have labored faithfully had honestly. In what have I failed or erred?
    Now, sir, I desire the Democracy to know that I am a candidate for renomination and that I only wish success if they think me honest, capable, faithful and true. And further, I desire them to know that I will not resort to any dishonorable means, in any shape, form or manner; nor will I do anything to disturb, distract or divide the Democratic Party; nor will I backbite, slander or detract from the merits of any man, for the sake of place. I will never attempt to pull down a fellow Democrat, that I may raise myself on his downfall. I will not have office on any such terms. I am a Democrat, and honestly believe that Democratic principles are the true principles of our government, and our party is held together by principle, and he that would set up his will in opposition to the wish of the party is not worthy [of] the confidence of the party, or he who would attempt to build himself up by slandering or injuring an honorable member of that great party is unworthy of their support. Our motto should be "the union of the party for the sake of our country."
    As above stated, I am a candidate for renomination. I submit my official acts in the judgment of a candid and impartial people. By them I am willing to be tried.
    If it can be shown that I have in any way--in any single instance--neglected my duty, or that any one of my official acts has proved detrimental to the interests of the Territory; if I have not labored assiduously, faithfully; if the public interests or private interests have suffered in my hands, I am ready to yield the field to some other aspirant. But let justice be done; let time be afforded me to render an account of my stewardship. For this purpose, I ask that no nomination be made, until I can have time to return home. This boon will not be refused by a generous people to a public servant, who has nearest his heart the honor and well-being of those he represents. And no Democrat, or the friends of any who seek a nomination, and are willing that his claims and merits should be discussed, can reasonably urge objections to this request. With much respect,
    Your obd't. serv't.,
        JOSEPH LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, December 19, 1854, page 3



Washington, Oct. 30th 1854
My Dear Sir:
    Yours of the 17th inst. is before me, and I return to you my sincere and heartfelt thanks for your kind and flattering expressions of regard and friendship.
    Of the merits of Mr. Tanner as a writer I have no doubt, and I would gladly avail myself of his kind offer to place before the public a record of my humble actions if circumstances permitted me to do so. But, sir, for reasons which I have fully explained to Mr. Tanner, I am compelled to decline a compliance with his and your wishes at this time. I trust, however, that at some future day I may be able to put in Mr. Tanner's hands such materials as will enable him to present to the public a book which, if possessing no interest in the relation of my own acts, will nevertheless be highly prized by all Indianans at least as containing a faithful record of the acts of those with whom I have been connected in the public service.
    Cordially reciprocating your sentiments of friendly regard, and thanking you for the flattering--too flattering--terms in which the expression of those sentiments is conveyed, I am
Ever truly yours
    Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Washington City
    November 3 1854
Dear Bush
    In  my letters I omitted to mention some facts connected with the removal of Culver. The Secretary of [the] Interior informed me that it was a standing rule of the departments in all cases of quarrel or difficulty between a superintendent and agent to remove one or the other. That in this case he should remove the agent, that he could see in charges, aside from the grass or hay speculation, good cause for removal, to wit--a receipt or voucher of the interpreter for money not paid was evidence sufficient of his disregard of law, principle, instruction, etc., and that he could not grant any time for investigation. When I found this thing settled, and that time could not be had, I recommended George H. Ambrose, who has been appointed.
Your friend
    Joseph Lane
"Copied from original letters in possession of Asahel Bush, Salem, Oregon."




Oregon City Nov. 5th 54
Dear Father
    I have just had a conversation with Mr. Guthrie in regard to the mill property. He proposed to me to change the form of the notes and mortgage so he would only be bound for one-half the purchase money, and I have agreed so far as my portion was concerned to take their separate notes and separate mortgages and stand ready to make the change as soon as you can be heard from. I hope you will agree to it, as it seems they will be satisfied with that. But I made another proposition to Mr. G. which is this: That I am willing to take half the amount of the original purchase provided they will cancel those debts immediately, and I feel willing to make the sacrifice in order to get the thing amicably settled and squared up. I hope you will agree to the same provided that will let us entirely out. I think it would be best.
Your son
    Nat. H. Lane
P.S. I mean by the debts above named the Bush & Nesmith debts and other old mill debts.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Salem O.T. November 6th 1854
Dear Genl.
    I wrote you by last mail enclosing my resignation to the President, which I hope will be speedily presented.
    Since I wrote you I had seen and had a long conversation with Pratt on the subject of Delegate. He is determined to submit his name to the convention. I told him plainly that I should support you in preference to him and gave him my reasons for it. He said that you would withdraw upon receiving his request to do so. I told him that if you did withdraw that he could not secure the nomination
    He has now gone on a pilgrimage to the South for the twofold purpose of looking after his prospects for Delegate and to speculate in Rogue River War claims. He says that he will make ten thousand dollars out of the latter operation, which will be more than the poor devils made who done the fighting. He has written "confidential" letters to everybody, which occasion a great amount of sport among the boys. In attending the courts this fall I have talked with the most of the prominent Democrats in the different counties and can find but few who would support him under any circumstances. Old Nat Ford of Polk and old Thornton of Benton are for Pratt. I asked him to get them to say nothing as their support would damn any man.
    Boise is working actively in Polk for you and has great influence and will be able to counteract anything that Ford may be able to do. I am inclined to think that Avery will go for Pratt. Some efforts have been made to secure old Fred Waymire's influence for Pratt, but I think he is safe for you. Holmes and Fulkerson of Polk will require some nursing. You haven't flattered the vanity of Waymire and Holmes enough by sending them documents and must make [it] up in the future.
    Farrar of Portland (of milling property memory!!) is down on you and swears that you cannot be nominated. He says that you swindled him in the purchase of the mills. I notice that I have never been troubled with what little was coming to me. He says however that he won't support Pratt. I rather think that he would like to be Delegate himself.
    Judging from a letter which I received a few days since from Tom Nesmith, a cousin of mine in Cincinnati, I think you have been pouring soft soap up his arse. He says that you told him that I would be in Congress from Oregon in a few years. I am inclined to think that I shall go to Abraham's bosom first. The tendency to immorality about Washington would not suit me.
    It is said that Judge Olney contemplates resigning. If this be true it is a matter of some importance to us here that a suitable man be selected for his successor. Some are afraid that Kelly of Oregon City will be recommended, which I don't think would be at all satisfactory.
    I think the most of the Democrats would prefer Boise. He would be a good appointment. Besides being a sound lawyer, a Democrat and an excellent man, he is a firm friend of yours.
    John is well and still at school. I understand that he talks of going out to see his mother shortly.
Your friend
    J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Jacksonville, Nov. 15th 1854
Dear General:
    You no doubt think that I am a very poor correspondent, but the fact is that I have not written because I had nothing interesting to write. Lately things have begun to develop themselves, and I hasten to post you up on the affairs of this county.
    First, Gen. Palmer came down here, and I satisfied him that he was wrong in suspending Culver, or that it was at least injudicious at the present time, and he reinstated him. My reasons for advising this was that the charges were false and made by irresponsible persons, and Culver had given satisfaction to almost everybody here, and it would seem to have been a mere excuse to cover some other reason for his removal. And again it might be said by Pratt's friends that it was done at your instigation. I assured Palmer that Culver could do nothing here to injure you even if he were so disposed, and he had assured me that he would take no part in a contest between you and Pratt, and expressed confidence that Pratt would not oppose you in the convention.
    Pratt came to Jacksonville while I was on a visit to Fort Lane and it was some days before I saw him. In the meantime I was somewhat alarmed by some intimations I had received from Dr. Drew as to what the hon. gentleman was doing, and I hurried up to see to it. I found everything all right as I expected. The subject of the delegateship had not been agitated here, and I only supposed that you were the favorite, but when Pratt came out as an avowed candidate it called out a very decided expression of opinion, and it proved to be unanimous. You are today five hundred votes stronger in this county than any man, Whig or Democrat, in this Territory. Your friends gave Judge Pratt to understand that this county went for Lane entire, and all the time. Richd. Dugan wishes me to say to you that the "boys" will "pitch in" for you--and I might fill the page with a list of warm friends, among whom are Thos. Pyle, shff. [sheriff], S. H. Taylor, postmaster, Maj. Lupton, Jas. McDonough, Dr. McKinnell, Dr. Ambrose, Jno. F. Miller, Saml. Colver, James Bruce, Jas. Leslie, Pat. Drum, L. Jackson, David Linn &c. &c. Capt. Smith of Ft. Lane has no hesitation in saying that he knows Pratt to be a damned scoundrel and this the Democratic Party ought to sink if they refuse to send you back.
    Dr. Drew, the Dep'y. U.S. Marshal, was understood to be ready to accept the nomination as a compromise candidate in case the convention could not agree on you or Pratt and at first spoke rather guardedly against you both, but he soon shifted his sails when he saw how the storm was rising and only tried to injure Pratt, which was entirely unnecessary.
    The commissioner appointed by the Legislature of California to run the 42° parallel has found that Althouse and Sailor Diggins are both in Oregon, and the inhabitants have become reconciled to it and have a magistrate appointed for them. The surveyors establish the line on the Yreka road about two miles south of the Pilot Rock.
    So you see that in your calculations you may set down Jackson County as certain.
    I am busy practicing law, and shall make a living and a little more I think in the course of time. I have a mining claim in the new diggins (Sterling) which I shall work by proxy when the water comes, and I think shall make some money.
    The Rogue River war claims have not yet been paid, but I suppose soon will be. The sooner the better. Write to me soon as to what you propose to do, and
Believe me
    Yours truly
        L. F. Mosher
Give my respects to Pugh if you see him.
   

Gen. Joseph Lane
    Washington
        D.C.
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Washington City, November 25, 1854
Sir:
    I take the liberty of submitting, for the consideration of the board of which you are president, a statement touching the management of and as to the expenses incurred in the war with the Rogue River Indians the year 1853, in which our loss was between thirty and forty killed, and between thirty and forty wounded.
    Within a few days after the battle of the 24th of August, all the volunteers except Capt. Miller's company were mustered out of the service. The reasons which induced me to retain this company are briefly as follows: Having, from long acquaintance, obtained the confidence of the principal chief of the Rogue River tribes. I learned from him that these Indians had agreed with the Klamath Indians that the war in the valley should be fiercely prosecuted by him, while the Klamath Indians would lay on the emigrant trail, destroy the emigrants, as they should come on, and then hasten to join his people and destroy the settlements, and that his braves were not satisfied with the results of the war, and being convinced that unless steps could be taken to prevent this plan of operations, we would be plunged into another bloody war. I ordered Capt. Miller to proceed with his company to Klamath Lake, protect the emigrants, and prevent the Indians from carrying into effect their hostile designs. Capt. Miller acted with promptness in carrying out my orders, behaved handsomely in several skirmishes with the Indians, whom he [illegible] to their towns and held in check until the emigrants had passed. That I might be the better able to prevent a hostile movement on their part, I remained with the Rogue River Indians several weeks. The movement proved to be as judicious as its results were fortunate in averting the calamity of war. I directed it in good faith as a measure of protection to settlers and emigrants, ordered the necessary subsistence and transportation to be furnished the company, both of which were done on the best possible terms and ought to be promptly paid for, including the pay of officers and men.
    My understanding with those comprising the company was that the men should be paid two dollars per day, and four dollars per day for each horse, those being the rates of compensation allowed by the state of California to her dragoons or mounted men for similar service. It may be proper to add that these remarks apply to the other troops in the service as well as Capt. Miller's company.
    The quartermaster was directed to have the animals in service shod, which he did, as you will see by the accounts and vouchers now in your hands.
    The surgeon general, Dr. Cleveland, was also directed to provide an hospital, furnish medicines, hospital stores, attendants, assistants &c., all of which were done, and the sick and wounded properly cared for.
    Subsistence, forage, ordnance stores, clothing &c. were furnished by different persons, at the then cash price. These and all other expenses of the war were necessary, and ought to be paid, as it was unquestionably the intention of Congress in the passage of the act of the 17th of July, 1854, that they should be.
    In conclusion, allow me to say that everything was done that could be under the circumstances to bring the war to a speedy conclusion and stop expenses, and at the lowest possible cost.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        [Joseph Lane]
Col. Smith
    President Board of Army Officers
        West of the Winder Building
            Washington
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Salem O.T. November 27th 1854
Dear Genl.,
    Your kind letter of October 18th was received by last mail. We feel mortified here at the result of the elections in Ohio, Pennsylvania & Indiana, but hope that it will be all right next time. It is true as you say that a combination of all the isms have played the devil.
    You will perhaps be astonished to learn that the "Know Nothings" have extended to this remote region. Holbrook imported the damned bigoted and intolerant organization from California last summer and though it has not flourished very extensively here, yet there are several lodges scattered about the country. They have been organized about two months in this town and have some party members. We have ferreted them out, found out their members and exposed their secrets. They are awfully indignant. About twenty of them surrounded Bush and myself on last Monday evening and threatened to cut us up. We drew our revolvers, when those heroes cooled down and looked very foolish  The population of this country is too sparse and widely scattered for the "Know Nothings" to ever form a very important element in our elections.
    We shall all be gratified if Curry receives the appointment of Governor, and particularly so if old Gardner is removed from the land office.
    John has gone out to visit his mother and intends remaining with her during the winter. His leaving school I knew was contrary to your wishes. I used every exertion in my power to induce him to remain and continue at school. It appears that he went at his mother's urgent request. I have paid all the bills of both the boys and have expended $232.00 more than the amounts you have sent me.
    Judge Pratt is still out South looking after his interests as Delegate, but I think from what I can learn with but little hopes of success. I have no doubt of your receiving the nomination. I am now attending to adjusting my accounts and will be able to step out with clean hands as soon as my successor is appointed, which I hope will be at an early day.
    I see that you have got a young "Ridgely of Oregon" appointed in the Navy. Thought I am tolerably well acquainted in Oregon, I have never had the pleasure of becoming acquainted with the Ridgely family, and therefore presume that the young man is the son of some of your lady "friends" about Washington. That is all right.
    I am sorry that your old friend has moved to Richmond, but hope that you will not be inconsolable.
    We have had one of the most delightful falls I ever witnessed in any country. There has been but very little rain. Everything is green and growing, and the weather is warm as summer.
In haste I remain
    Your friend
        J. W. Nesmith
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.




Newburg, Indiana
    December the 3rd 1854
Dear Brother, I received your welcome letter which informed me of your safe arrival at Washington and also of your good health. We are all in common health, and I am still making all preparations in my power for our journey in the spring to Oregon. It is out of my power to fully settle my business this winter, and I wish to have your advice on one subject, that is, about taking the family this spring or leave them one year longer here. I can't turn more than one third of my property into money by the time we wish to start. Money matters are very bad just as you predicted in your letters but I am very cautious about taking paper. Corn is worth from 50 to 55 cts. per bushel. It is my full determination to leave Indiana in the spring; that is the one thing I wish to be understood. I want you to write when you get this and let me know what time you will be ready to start. I want you to direct your letters to Evansville.
Simon Lane
To Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library



Washington, D.C.
    December 12th 1854
My Dear Sir:
    I received yours of Oct. 22nd by last mail, and regretted much to learn that there is dissatisfaction growing out of the conduct of the officers of the Territory in relation to the late massacre of the Snake Indians. No man deplores that massacre more than I do; no man can feel a greater desire to see the perpetrators punished. But, my dear sir, you must bear in mind in forming your judgment of this matter that Mr. Curry had no funds at his command with which to pay troops and purchase supplies, and he has no authority to pledge the credit of the general government. Still he might have proceeded on the supposition that the general government would pay all expenses, if there were not another and insuperable difficulty in the way. I mean the utter impracticability, in the opinion of all military men here and elsewhere, of a successful campaign against the Indians in the winter season. You know the native of the country inhabited by the Snake Indians, its elevation, the extreme rigor of its climate, its destitution of all natural products capable of sustaining man and beast under the hardships and privations of a campaign in the dead of winter. I appeal to your good understanding and ask you whether in view of these facts it would not be most judicious to wait for a more propitious season, when the Indians can be more easily found, and subsistence for men and horses can be more easily procured. Besides, by waiting till spring the volunteers from Oregon will have the cooperation of U.S. troops which the Secretary of War has promised to send at the earliest practicable moment. These troops will reach Oregon early in the spring, when, with their cooperation, we may be able to strike a blow which will prevent any massacres hereafter. I say we will strike a blow. By this I mean to say that I shall be on hand, and if my services are wanted, I wish to be considered enlisted for the war. The Indians must & shall be punished, and when the proper time arrives we must all strike together. The wise man has said there is a time for all things. The return of spring will be the time for inflicting a terrible chastisement on the bloodthirsty savages. I trust that all in Oregon will be as active in preparing for the contest as I am here in stimulating the authorities by showing them the urgency of the duty of sending a force adequate to the exigency of the occasion.
    With regard to sending you documents, you may rest assured I will send you as many as possible.
Truly your friend
    [Joseph Lane]
Robert Gilliam, Esq.
    Dallas, Polk Co.
        Oregon
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




(Confidential)
Salem, Oregon
    Decr. 15, 1854
Gen. Joseph Lane
    Dear Sir--
        This letter may be quite brief, or I may spin it out to a length which may render it certain you will not wade through it. The legislature has now been in session two weeks. In the papers you will observe its proceedings and action thus far. I have been here for a week, and have busied myself in ascertaining, with as much certainty as possible, the feelings of the members and of the persons who are here from different parts of the Territory, with reference to the next delegateship.
    General, do you recollect the several conversations we held in Portland when you were there awaiting the steamer for the States? Then you did not credit very many of the facts I communicated to you. Then you thought me mistaken in my estimates of the friendship professed by different men to you. Then you believed that some persons who were loud in professions of friendship towards [you] were really and truly devoted to you. I differed with you then as to those individuals, and now after a further experience of one year in the country I am more fully convinced of the correctness of my positions. I feel certain that you have in a measure changed your opinions of some of those we conversed about. There is a strong effort being made to nominate for next delegate some person other than yourself. There is a strong party in the Territory in favor of the nomination of Judge Pratt. His friends are indefatigable in their labors to bestow upon him the nomination. The Judge has recently ridden from his residence to the mines in Jackson County. He has acquired many influential friends during his trip. He has written letters to everybody upon the subject of his nomination. People have been flattered by being consulted by him, and this little attention to them on his part has converted them into ardent friends and industrious electioneers. The Judge is resolved to obtain the nomination. He will be successful, if diligent, unceasing labor can win success. He has so far committed himself that he is absolutely forced to
push on to the attainment of his object. It is with him a life struggle. You know, General, that if he fails in obtaining the nomination for delegate that he is, through the failure, killed "as dead as the devil." If he is beaten for the nomination he will at once leave Oregon for good. If he should obtain the nomination we shall have the bitterest canvass ever had upon the Pacific Coast. If Pratt should be defeated of an election he would betake himself promptly from the Territory. So far as I can judge, General, Pratt will make a desperate fight to attain the object of his ambition. It is impossible by written communication to furnish you with a living picture of political affairs here. There is so much of it, so many movements, plots and counterplots, so much pulling and hauling, so much pipe laying and wire pulling, that it would require too much space to give you the detail of matters. I can therefore only state to you a few facts, and the results of other facts and combinations. We have from Washington County one Democratic member of the lower house. This morning he told me he should go for Pratt. I interrogated him as to his reasons. His replies were that you never write to any persons except to a few in Salem--that you did not correspond with the masses--that people were becoming dissatisfied with you because you neglected them. Now, General, I write this sort of thing because I feel it is best for you to be apprised of it--that you may know where the shoe pinches, and so that you may remedy these complaints. You may say the reason for Dr. Belknap's opposition to you is puerile--that he talks like a fool. Well, so he does. His reason is sheer nonsense. Still, that little fact has withdrawn from you one member of the legislature, and has transferred him to the support of the Judge.
    Holmes, the member from Polk Co., makes the same accusation. But Holmes and Belknap are only types of a class, and do not constitute the whole number who are committing themselves to Pratt. And these men do not like Pratt personally. They are actuated by their unkindly feelings towards yourself to commit themselves to that man. Govr. Curry has, or undoubtedly will, fully apprise you concerning the complaints made against you in Umpqua and other southern counties. You may not feel inclined to regard them as of much moment. But, General, I assure you that your enemies are making great headway against you in the South. Some of the men you have put into office, at their personal solicitation, are the most bitter, determined and industrious opponents you possess. It is not necessary for me to designate them by name. You know them well. Here in Salem you have some ardent and influential friends and supporters. Even in Salem there are men who favor laying you on the shelf, and there are others who are indifferent as to the result of the contest between yourself and Pratt. Judge Williams has friends here who wish him to be the nominee, and they hope the strife will end by his slipping in between yourself and the Judge and carrying off the prize. Williams has openly said [end of letter lost]
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.  The handwriting of the letter resembles that of R. W. Dunbar.




Salem, December 18th, 1854
Dear General:
    I have been here a week, and from what I can learn your prospect is good for the nomination. I think it certain, but some of your friends are in doubt about it. There is a great deal of low tricky practiced in this section of the Territory, of which Pratt is the ringleader. If the people are faithfully represented in the convention there will be no earthly doubt as to the result, but you may be assured that no stone will be left unturned by your opponent to defeat you and I am satisfied that many who would be your friends if you were present and no doubt pretend to be such when writing to you are really trying to defeat you.
    It is painful to me to say anything which will make you distrust men, but since I have been here I have seen so much double dealing that I have become perfectly disgusted. Many of the appointees to office even are either Pratt men or in favor of some third man against you.
    And while on the subject of appointments, about which there has been much complaint among your friends and I suppose always will be, no matter who is appointed, allow me to say a word in regard to the Surveyor Generalship. I think it would be good policy to appoint Mr. Lake [deputy surveyor Wells Lake]; he is capable, a good Democrat, a gentleman and a Lane man, and would be able if appointed to wield some influence, while the others named have no knowledge of the duties, are men of no influence and in fact deadheads. I always prefer a king stork to a king log. I have very little personal acquaintance with any of the parties, but this is the conclusion which I have arrived at after hearing the friends of all parties. There will be some complaints made against Mr. Lake, of course, but a party is always strengthened by appointing men of talent. By the way, if any removal in that office is to be made I think it advisable to wait until after the nominating convention.
    A bill has been introduced to change the time of holding the elections, which I hope may pass--though the Whigs and Pratt men may defeat it.
    I leave tomorrow for Jackson County, where men are not afraid to express their opinions, and where they are all Lane men.
I am
    Yours truly
        L. F. Mosher
Hon. Joseph Lane
    House Reps.
        Washington
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library




Salem Oregon December 19th, 1854
Dear Genl.,
    The last mail brought us news of the new appointments for our Territory, and I believe they give general satisfaction to the party. The subject of who shall be the next delegate begins to attract some attention. Pratt and his friends are busy in the field. If industry is to be rewarded he stands a good stance for success. At all events the little Judge is agoing to be a more formidable opponent than I had at first supposed he could be. He is untiring in his exertions, and will resort to the most unscrupulous acts to accomplish his ends. So you may be prepared for the worst, as he is daily resorting to every means in his power to break you down.
    In Jackson County your prospects are good, and will be better if the expenses of the Rogue River War is paid before the convention sits. Pratt in his late visit out there I understand took out a large amount of money to purchase those [Indian war] claims, but the people knowing that the money had been appropriated for their payment refused to have them showed. Being foiled in this speculation the little Judge told them that they never would be paid under the "bungling law that Lane has got passed."
    In the Umpqua Valley from present appearances you cannot expect much. That damned military road has become a source of great contention, all brought about by the interference of that damned scamp, Jesse Applegate.
    Whether you are guilty of pandering to him or not, you will have to suffer all the evils that can possibly flow from such a charge. Public feeling there is intense on the subject. Jesse is exhibiting your letters, and Pratt is taking advantage of the thing to render you odious, and to build himself up.
    In this valley Pratt has made more or less headway in all the country. Jim Hill I think is certain to you for him [sic] in the convention. The most of the prominent and active men there are at work for him. In Polk his forces are headed by old Ford, but I think that the county is good for you. Also this county, and Linn, and Lane, Washington, Clackamas, Clatsop and Benton are all doubtful.
    In the event that neither of you got the nomination, I think that Judge Williams will stand a good chance to come in as the third man, however he does not desire it, but on the contrary is doing all he can for you. Pratt is very bitter against him, Avery, Harding, Grover, Bush, McCracken, myself and others for opposing his pretentions and calls us the "Salem Clique." He will find that the "clique" will give him some trouble yet.
    There is being an effort made to change the time of holding the election, but I don't believe that it will succeed. All the Whigs and all of Pratt's friends oppose it, as neither of them desire to give you an opportunity to be heard by the people before the election. If the time of holding the election is not changed, the Territorial convention will have to be held before you can reach here if you wait for Congress to adjourn. Pratt's friends are clamorous to have the convention called in January, but I won't consent to it and think that I can stave it off till the middle of March, and perhaps the first of April.
    By taking a little pains with Gibbs of Umpqua you might secure his influence. He is poor and talks of resigning his office and going to Jacksonville. If you could have his salary raised no doubt it would have a tendency to secure him.
    I have forwarded to the First Auditor at different times accounts for a large amount. I have been notified of their reception at the department, but have never heard of their being passed upon. I wish that you would give the matter a little attention and see why action on them is delayed so long.
Your friend
    J. W. Nesmith<